Box 6-1 Task Group 4 Study Approach

Task 4) The committee will recommend how future major oceanographic programs should be planned, structured, and organized.

Question 4: Which existing program structures and organizations worked well and should be used as a pattern for future programs?

Data used:


    discussion of origin of the programs in study—personal initiatives. NRC workshops, mechanisms for improving and involving the broader community in planning;


    synopsis of structure and administrative organization of major programs and mechanisms for improvement of management;


    community input regarding series of questions for future research that would be better served by intermediate-size program structures;


    community input regarding data processing and management;


    community input regarding mechanisms for identifying a natural end to major oceanographic programs;


    community input regarding mechanisms for paving an easier road for programs that cross traditional discipline boundaries (e.g., ocean and atmosphere; ocean and biosphere for CO2-related issues; and removing the boundary between the ocean and shoreline);


    community input regarding coordination among long lead time mission agencies and satellite launches;


    community input regarding coordination among long lead time mission agencies and satellite launches;


    community input regarding value synergy between models and observations, and the need for predictive models; and


    community input regarding kinds of forums that should be used to identify gaps among the major programs.

    The Present Programs Involving NSF

    To better understand the variety of approaches and mechanisms involved in program initiation, the initial phases of several existing or former programs were examined using program publications and responses to the questionnaires (Appendices C, D, and E). The origin and evolution of the programs varied in detail, but many common traits are apparent.

    TOGA: Two converging workshops were held to start TOGA. One workshop was conducted at Princeton under the auspices of the NRC Climate Research Committee (CRC). This meeting led to the 1983 NRC report El Niño and the

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