Experimental, and Analytical Approaches. Reports from five RIDGE Working Groups and a draft program outline were published in 1989.

CoOP:   In 1985, the first Advisory Committee for the Ocean Science Program developed a long-range plan entitled Emergence of a United Ocean Sciences, which included discussion of the value of coastal research program. An open meeting was held after an American Geophysical Union (AGU) Ocean Sciences meeting in 1987, followed by a series of smaller workshops across the country to discuss program goals, scope, and objectives. As the program evolved it became interdisciplinary, and the name was changed from CoPO (Coastal Physical Oceanography) to CoOP (Coastal Ocean Processes).

GLOBEC:   Emergence of a United Ocean Sciences also described a program with many of the elements present in today's GLOBEC program. The origin of U.S. GLOBEC was associated with a meeting sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and ONR in 1988, which led to the formation of the Scientific Steering Committee in 1989.

CLIVAR:   In 1991, while TOGA and WOCE were still in progress, the Joint Scientific Committee (JSC) for the WCRP called on a group of experts to consider possible future directions for climate research. The deliberations of this study group were published in 1992 under the title CLIVAR—A Study of Climate Variability and Predictability . The JSC formally decided in 1993 to undertake CLIVAR as a major new activity in the WCRP and established a Scientific Steering Group (SSC). CLIVAR was initially divided into three programs: (1) CLIVAR-GOALS (the ocean component of CLIVAR) is a study of seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and predictability of the global ocean-atmosphere-land system; (2) CLIVAR-DecCen is to address decadal to centennial climate variability; and (3) CLIVAR-ACC, which concentrates on modeling and detection of anthropogenic climate change. The NRC organized a workshop for GOALS in 1992 to produce a science plan (NRC, 1994b). In the United States, CLIVAR planning is being coordinated by two NRC panels, one for GOALS and another for decadal to centennial climate variability and predictability (CLIVAR-DecCen) and anthropogenic climate change (CLIVAR-ACC).

The scientific questions behind the present set of major oceanographic programs came forward largely from the oceanographic community. In many cases, the scientific challenges that became the focus of these programs began with a few individuals, often colleagues with a history of collaboration. These kinds of collaborations are sometimes facilitated in the large oceanographic institutions where researchers have easy access to colleagues in a number of relevant fields and a potent research infrastructure that includes a variety of laboratory facilities and computer services. Thus, many of the ongoing programs were nurtured by early associations with large institutions.

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