treatment programs, individual treatment providers and networks of care. State and federal governments, employers, and purchasing alliances could then be encouraged to use these data to inform their health care purchasing and contracting decisions. Consumer groups should also advocate for the development of standards of care in community-based clinics, treatment networks, integrated delivery systems, and managed care networks. Such standards could be used in accreditation of treatment programs and are best if based on findings from clinical research, as well as broadly accepted clinical consensus.

Training Strategies for Community-Based Research Collaboration

In order to foster collaborative research in this field, it is necessary to enhance special skills needed for the next generation of drug abuse researchers. Despite the many prior recommendations for addressing this problem, both clinical and research training programs need to be more attentive to the need for collaboration to improve treatment in this field. The committee made three recommendations specific to preparing trainees for active participation in clinical research studies.

RECOMMENDATION 10. NIDA and other research funding agencies should support predoctoral and postdoctoral research training programs that provide experience in drug abuse treatment research and health services research within community-based treatment programs. Programs funded should have the full and active participation of community-based treatment programs and should include resources to fund the costs of participation for the treatment programs.

RECOMMENDATION 11. University training programs in the health professions should:


    enhance exposure of students to didactic teaching about substance abuse and dependence;


    require didactic teaching as well as supervised clinical experiences in community-based treatment settings;


    teach students to interpret substance abuse treatment research and apply research findings in their clinical practices;


    work with professional organizations to enhance continuing education about the addictions within the residency training curriculum of the various health professions; and


    support researchers seeking to enhance collaborative relation-

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