the implementation of proven research findings. For example, behavioral incentive programs proven highly effective in treatment of cocaine addiction are not very practical for a mid-west CBO receiving $340 per case per year, about a third of the cost of the incentive program. Researchers talked of the difficulty getting funded for community-based research, the special pitfalls of the NIH grant review process for applied research proposals, and the challenge of doing research in a nonacademic treatment setting. Providers and researchers agreed on the difficulties of getting funding to cover the true costs of participating in research. This workshop concluded with a discussion focused on the impact of stakeholder interactions and how these interactions—or their lack—affected treatment of drug abuse, the need for more and different collaborative research and better strategies to translate results into findings relevant to the intended audience.

The second workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was co-hosted by the Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addiction (CASAA) at the University of New Mexico and provided input from stakeholders in western states. Participants described successes and failures in research collaboration and dissemination of research findings, as well as the challenges of integrating clinical experience with research design. This meeting provided an opportunity to obtain an overview of community-based drug treatment in a richly multicultural and mostly rural state containing a very large Hispanic population and 26 Indian nations. In addition to researchers from CASAA, participants included representatives of the state substance abuse agency, the state legislature, the city of Albuquerque, Albuquerque public schools, New Mexico drug courts, the Navajo Nation, and the regional representative of the National Association of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselors. Participants from Arizona, California, Colorado, Texas, and Washington attended the Albuquerque workshop, representing providers, researchers, and counselor organizations and the Window Rock Navajo Reservation.

Additional input from drug treatment providers and policymakers in the District of Columbia was obtained through two meetings attended by committee staff. The first was a special meeting of the District of Columbia Health Policy Council to discuss drug abuse and mental health needs where it was reported that less than 10 percent of the estimated 76,000 substance abusing individuals in D.C. received any form of treatment. The second was a meeting for District providers of drug abuse treatment held at Seton House of Providence Hospital. The discussion focused on the dilemma faced by treatment providers in an area of shrinking social as well as treatment services. The lack of social services is a special concern to providers with clients who may never have held a job, perhaps do not speak English or have not learned to read, and do not have family or community support to ''wraparound" their treatment. At the earlier D.C. committee



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