provide treatment services. Similarly, investigations of staffing patterns and the characteristics of the drug abuse treatment workforce can not be completed without the direct participation of treatment agencies (Brown, 1997; Price, 1997). There is also insufficient information on the characteristics of individuals seeking care and the interventions that best meet the unique needs of women, minorities, and adolescents (Price, 1997).
Case management has been widely adopted and promoted for the care of men and women with serious mental illness but has not been well developed for the treatment of chronic alcohol and drug dependence (Willenbring, 1995; Willenbring et al., 1991). Managed care organizations, however, often promote case management as an essential tool. While investigations of case management for drug abuse treatment demonstrate that case managed clients receive more services, evidence that outcomes improve has emerged less clearly (Orwin et al., 1993) and more slowly (Shwartz et al., 1997). Thus, there is much opportunity for treatment providers with effective mature models of case management to collaborate with researchers and examine the factors that contribute to more beneficial outcomes.
The committee heard many additional areas highlighted in testimony from both researchers and practitioners. The list of areas where collaboration between researchers and treatment programs will improve theory and enhance practice may be nearly infinite.
Brown BS. 1997. Staffing patterns and services for the war on drugs. In: Fox DM, Egertson J, Leshner Al eds. Treating Drug Abusers Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 99-124.
Horgan CM. 1997. Need and access to drug-abuse treatment. In: Egertson JA, Fox DM, Leshner Al eds. Treating Drug Abusers Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Orwin RG, Goldman HH, Sonnefeld LJ, Smith NG, Ridgely MS, Garrison-Morgren R, O'Neill E, Luchese J, Sherman A, O'Connell ME. 1993. Community Demonstration Grant Projects for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment of Homeless Individuals: Final Evaluation Report. NIH Pub. No. 92-3541. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Price RH. 1997. What we know and what we actually do: Best practices and their prevalence. In: Egertson JA, Fox DM, Leshner A eds. Treating Drug Abusers Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 125-155.
Shwartz M, Baker G, Mulvey KP, Plough A. 1997. Improving publicly funded substance abuse treatment. American Journal of Public Health 87:1659-1664.
Simpson DD. 1997. Effectiveness of drug-abuse treatment: A review of research from field settings. In: Egertson JA, Fox DM, Leshner Al eds. Treating Drug Abusers Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Willenbring ML. 1995. Case management application in substance use disorders. Journal of Case Management 3:150-157.