growing isolation of the clinical-provider communities from the research communities. Within this context, it is clearly critical to examine closely all elements of the community-based drug abuse treatment system with the goal of facilitating new strategies for partnership and increasing synergy among those working in a variety of settings to reduce the individual and societal costs of drug addiction.

REFERENCES

Besteman KJ. 1992. Federal leadership in building the national drug treatment system. In: Institute of Medicine Treating Drug Problems. Vol. 2. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Cartwright WS, Kaple JM, eds. 1991. NIDA Research Monograph 113: Economic Costs, Cost-Effectiveness, Financing, and Community-Based Drug Treatment. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Courtwright D, Joseph H, Des Jarlais D. 1989. Addicts Who Survived: An Oral History of Narcotic Use in America, 1923-1965. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press.


Epstein J, Gfroerer J. 1998. Changes Affecting NHSDA Estimates of Treatment Need for 1994-1996: OAS Working Paper. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.


Gustafson JS, Reda JL, McMullen H, Sheehan K, McGencey S, Rugaber C, Anderson R, DiCarlo M. 1997. State Resources and Services Related to Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: Fiscal Year 1995. Washington, DC: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990a. Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1990b. Treating Drug Problems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1994. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1996. Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1997a. Dispelling the Myths About Addiction: Strategies to Increase Understanding and Strengthen Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1997b. Managing Managed Care: Quality Improvement in Behavioral Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Jaffe JH. 1979. The swinging pendulum: The treatment of drug abusers in America. In: Dupont RI, Goldstein A, O'Donnell J eds. Handbook on Drug Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pp. 3-16.


NIAAA (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). 1997. Ninth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.


Suchman E. 1966. Health Orientation and Medical Care. American Journal of Public Health 56:97-105.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement