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Index A Adolescents away-from-home eating, 109, 112, 113 iron intake, 23-26 snacking by, 99, 102-103 vitamin C, serum levels, 26-27 Agricultural Research Service, 13 Agriculture Department (USDA) food plans, 52, 54, 145 JNMEC sponsorship, 7-9 nutrition policy, 158 nutrition surveillance, 2, 9-11, 13-15, 18-20, 151 programs, 159-160 research, 159 thrifty food plan, 145 Alcoholism, 146 Anemia, 22-26 At-home eating, income effect on, 50-51 At-risk groups. See Nutritional risk groups Away-from-home eating adolescents, 109, 112, 113 adults, 113-116 calcium intake, 93, 109-120 caloric intake, 93, 109-120 children, 109, 112 cholesterol intake, 93, 109-120 conclusions, 123 data used, 92-93 diet quality, 109-120 dietary component intake, 116-120 elderly persons, 114-116 fat intake, 93, 109-120 identification of sample, 105, 108, 109 income effect on, 50 iron intake, 93, 109-120 magnesium intake, 93, 109-120 methodology, 94-95 patterns, 9~95 RDAs, 109-113 snacking relationship, 120~123 sodium intake, 93, 109-120 sugar intake, 93, 109-119 three-day dietary records, 92 vitamin B6 intake, 93, 109-120 B Basic four food groups, 150, 153 Bousch, David M., 72-84 Brandt, Edward N., Jr., 9 C Calcium, 91, 105, 131, 149 away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 food variety and, 131, 134 intake, and income, 46-47 snacking and, 93, 102-105 Caloric intake away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 food variety and, 133, 135, 136 income, 46-48 snacking and, 93, 98-105 Canada consumer understanding study, 127 Food Guide, 126 Centers for Disease Control, 13, 36 Children away-from-home eating, 109, 112 167

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168 iron intake, 23-26 school lunch program, 163-164 snacking by, 98, 99, 102 vitamin C levels, 27 Chili peppers, 64 65 Cholesterol intake away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 snacking and, 93, 98-105 Cigarette smoking and vitamin C levels, 28-34 Cognitive processes, 75-82 Conjunctive model of decisionmaking, 79 Consumer behavior theory, 43, 45, 72- 84 cognitive approach, 75 economic psychology approach, 74 information processing, 7~82 learning theory approach, 74 physiological approach, 73 research, 73-75 social approach, 74 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 18-19, 159 D Data availability, 13-14, 1~17, 19-20 Data sources, 12-13, 21-22 Dental caries, 146 DHHS. See Health and Human Services, Department of Dietary guidelines. See Food/nutrient guidelines Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 159 Dietary intake, 21 income and, 46 48 iron, 22-26 vitamin C, 2~35 zinc, 3~38 See also Away-from-home eating; Consumer behavior theory; Economics theoty; Food variety; Psychological theory; Snacking Dietary supplements use and vitamin C levels, 28-35 INDEX Disease and nutrition, 146, 148-149, 155-156 Disjunctive model of decisionmaking, 80 Dwyer, Johanna T., 15~157 E Eating Patterns, 43~5, 87-92 effect of income, 48~9 food choices, 88-89 influence on consumption of modified diets, 155 meal patterns, 88 NECS data, 87-89, 91, 92 NHANES I and II, 87-89, 91 problem nutrients, 91 snacking, 88 See also Away-from-home eating; Snack consumption Economics theory, 43, 44, 46 47 economic psychology theories, 74 efficiency in food consumption, 52-54 food and nutrition profiles, 55-56 income and food consumption patterns, 48-51, 93, 95, 108 income and nutrient intake, 46~8 income elasticity, 49 poverty status and vitamin C levels, 28, 3~34 prices and diet, 51-52 time allocation model, 5~55 Economic Research Service, 13 Education. See Nutrition education Education levels and eating patterns, 94, 98 and food variety, 128 Elderly persons away-from-home eating, 11~116 snacking by, 100-101, 104 FaIIon, April, 58-71 Fat consumption away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 snacking and, 93, 98-105

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INDEX Fluande intake, 146 Folacin, 18 Folic acid, 149 Food and Agriculture Act, 9 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 13, 18 Food assistance programs, 159, 160, 162 school lunches, 163-164 Food consumption patterns. See Eating patterns Food consumption surveys. See Nutrition surveys Food energy. See Caloric intake Food/nutrient guidelines, 127, 159-160 compliance with, 88-89 principles of, 153-154 recommendations for, 154 See also Basic four food groups; Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; Recommended Dietary Allowances Food industry and nutrition, 148-149 food industry, contributions, 148-149 nutrient deficiency disease, 148-149 nutrient-dense food supply, 149 nutritional status, determinants, 148 Food plans, 52, 54, 145 Food preferences, 43~5, 58-69 compliance with nutritional guidance, 88-89 See also Consumer behavior theory; Economics theory; Psychological theory Food Research and Action Center (BRACT, 162, 163 Food Stamp Program, 54 Food variety, 12~140 benefits, 126-128 calcium intake, 131, 134 caloric intake, 133, 135, 136 carbohydrate intake, 133, 135 conclusions, 137-139 dietary quality measure, 131 extent of variety, 131-133 fatintake,l33, 135 food/nutrient guidelines, 153-154, 159-160 169 food supply changes, 148-149 interpretation, 127-128 iron intake, 131, 133, 134 magnesium intake, 131, 133, 134 mean adequacy ratios (MARs), 131, 133, 135-137 measurement, 128-129 methodology, 129-131 NFCS data, 129-130 nutrient adequacy of unique foods, 133-137 nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs), 131, 133-134 phosphorus intake, 131, 134 protein intake, 131, 133-135 riboflavin intake, 131, 134 scores, 128-129 thiamin intake, 131, 133, 134 variety measure, 13~131 vitamin A intake, 131, 134 vitamin B6 intake, 131, 133, 134 vitamin BE intake, 131, 133, 134 vitamin C intake, 131, 134 G Goungetas, Basile, 91-125 Guthrie, Helen A., 87-90 H Habicht, Jean-Pie~re, 143-147 Health and Human Services, Department of (DHHS) advice on fat intake, 163 JNMEC sponsorship, 7-9 nutrition policy, 159 nutrition surveillance, 2, 9-11, 13-15, 18-20, 151 Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (HANES). See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Heath status measures, 15, 18 Heuristic models, 78-80

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170 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 13, 18 Human Nutrition Information Service (HNIS), 8, 12, 13, 22 Hunger and malnutrition, 162-163 Income. See Economic theory Information processing, 75-82 Iron, 18, 22-26, 91, 105, 131, 149 anemia, 22-26 away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 data from NFCS, 25-26 data from NHANES II, 22 [erntin model, 22-25 food variety and, 131, 133, 134 impaired status, models for prevalence, 23-25 intake, and income, 46 47 MCV model, 22, 23-25 snacking and, 93, 102-105 J Jarratt, Mary C., 9 Johnson, Clifford, 21-39 Johnson, Stanley R., 43~5 Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee (JNMEC), 7-20 components, 8-9 data sources, 12-13 first report, measurements, 1 1-15 food components, available data on nutrient composition, 18 functions, 7-8 future surveys, 18-19 goals and objectives, 1~11 health status. 18 history, 9-10 implementation plarl, 10-11 methodology studies, 15 NFCS, 12-15 NHANES, 13-15 nutritional status, standards for, 15 INDEx K Krebs-Smith, James, 126-140 Krebs-Smith, Susan M., 12~140 L Learning theory, 74 Least cost diets, 54 Legal advocacy, 162-163 Leveille, Gilbert A., 148-149 Lexicographic model of decisionmaking, 79 Linear model of decisionmaking, 78-79 M Magnesium, 91, 105, 131, 149 away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 food variety and, 131, 133, 134 intake and income, 46~7 snacking and, 93, 102-105 Meal patterns, 88. See also Away-from- home eating; Snack consumption Meese, Edwin, 163 Methodology studies, 15 Mineral supplements, 28-36 Minerals calcium, 46~7, 91, 93, 102-105, 109-120, 131, 134, 149 iron, 18, 22-26, 46~7, 91, 93, 102- 105, 109-120, 131, 133, 134, 149 magnesium, 46 47, 91, 93, 102-105, 109-120, 131, 133, 134, 149 phosphorus, 46~7, 131, 134 zinc, 18, 3~38, 149 Morgan, Karen J., 91-125 Murphy, Robert, 21-39 N National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 8, 13, 21, 151 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), I 1, 13, 151

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INDEX data sources, 13 eating patterns data, 87-89, 91 iron and anemia analysis, 22-26 limitations, lS1 NFCS coordination, 14 NHANES II, 21-22, 38 1988 survey, 18 vitamin C analysis, 2~36 zinc analysis, 3~38 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 154, 155 National Nutrient Data Bank, 13, 18 National Nutrition Monitoring System, 7, 9-11, 14, 19-20 National School Lunch Program, 163- 164 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), 11, 18, 21-22, 25-26, 38, 135, 151-159 code book, 13~131 data sources, 12-13 eating patterns data, 87-89, 91, 92 food variety data, 129-130 iron and anemia analysis, 22-26 limitations, 151 NHANES coordination, 14 1987 survey, 19 vitamin C analysis, 34 zinc analysis, 37 Niacin, 47 Nutrient composition of foods, 18 Nutrition education, 15~157 basic four food groups guide, 150, 153 consumer compliance with dietary guidelines, 88-89 food choices, factors in, 150 food guidance systems, 127, 153-154, 159-160 information processing, 8~81 on needs of nutritionally vulnerable population, 145, 151-154 nutrition education, misconceptions, 150 on preventive and therapeutic diets, 155-156 recommendations, 156 171 Nutrition Education and Training Program, 164 Nutrition information processing, 80~81 Nutrition policy and programs, 143 nutrition research relationship, 144- 147 thrifty food plan, 145 of USDA, 158-161 Nutrition research food supply changes, 148-149 high-risk groups, 145 national nutritional surveillance, 145 nutrient composition of foods, 18 program planning, relationship, 144 147 RDAs, 144 REIs, 144 USDA efforts, 159 Nutntional status standards, 15 Nutrition surveys data assessment problems, 15, 18 future surveys, 18-19, 159 limitations of, 145, 151 methodology studies, 15 National Nutrition Monitoring System, 7, 9-11, 14, 19 policy recommendations, 151-152 See also National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Nutritional deficiency, 38 food industry's work to eliminate, 148-149 iron, 22-26 vitamin C, 2~36 zinc, 36-38 See also Away-from-home eating; Snacking Nutritional risk groups children's school lunch program, 163- 164 eating patterns, 151 education materials for, 154 effects of government programs, 152- 153 hunger and malnutrition data, 162-163

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172 legal advocacy for, 162 nutrition monitoring, 145, 151 policy recommendations, 151-153 preventive and therapeutic diets, 155- 156 Nutritional status, 21-39 data sources, 21-22 iron, 22-26 standards, 15 vitamin C, 2~35 zinc, 3~38 o Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, 152 p Parker, LYM, 162-164 Peterkin, Betty B., 158-161 Phosphorus intake, 46 47, 131, 134 Physiological research, 73 Poverty poverty status and vitamin C intake, 34 See also Economics theory President's Task [force on Food Assistance, 163 Preventive diets, 155-156 Price effects. See Economics theory Protein food variety and, 131, 133-135 intalce and income, 46 47 Psychological theory, 43, 44, 58-71 categories of accepted and rejected foods, 59-61 disgust versus inappropriate, 65-67 distaste versus danger, 62-63 good taste versus beneficial, 63-65 positive transvaluation, 67-69 Pyridoxine, 149 R Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), 15, 126, 153 INDEX calcium, 102-104, 113, 116 failure to achieve, 159-160 intake by income, 4~47 iron, 25-26, 103, 116 magnesium, 103,104, 1.13, 116 problems associated with, 144, 146, 153 vitamin B6, 102-104, 113, 116 vitamin C, 30~31, 35-36 zinc, 37 Recommended Energy Intake (REI), 144 Research. See Nutrition research Riboflavin intake, 4~47, 131, 134 Roering, Kenneth J., 72-84 Rozin, Paul, 58-71 S Senauer, Benjamin, 4~57 Shipp, Shannon H., 72-84 Smiciklas-Wright, Helen, 12~140 Snacking adolescents, 99, 102-103 adults, 100 101, 103-104 away-from-home eating, relationship, 12~123 calcium intake, 93, 102-105 caloric intake, 93, 98-105. children, 98, 99, 102 cholesterol intake, 93, 98-lQ5 conclusions, 88, 123 data used, 92-93 diet quality, 98-105 elderly persons, 100~101, 104 fat intake, 93, 98-105 identification of sample, 95-98 iron intake, 93, 102-105 magnesium intake, 93, 102-105 methodology, 93-95 problem nutrients and overconsllmed dietary components, 104 105 RDAs, 102-104 snacking patterns, 93-94 sodium intake, 93, 102-105 sugar intake, 93, 102-105 three-day dietary records, 92

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INDEX vitamin B6, 93, 102-105 Social theories, 74 Socioeconomic model. See Economics theory Sodium intake away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 snacking and, 93, 102-105 Sugar consumption away-from-home eating, 93, 109-119 snacking and, 93, 102-105 Supplements, 28-36 Surveys future, 18-19 See also National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; Nutrition surveys T Therapeutic diets, 155-156 Thiamin intake, 4~47, 131, 133, 134 Thrifty food plan, 145 Time allocation model, 54 55 Total Diet Study, 13 U University of Norm Carolina's Child Health Outcomes Project, 163 USDA. See Agriculture Department V Vanety in foods. See Food variety Vitamin A intake, 46~47, 131, 134 Vitamin B6, 18, 91, 105 away-from-home eating, 93, 109-120 food variety and, 131, 133, 134 -173 intake, and income, 46 47 RDA, 131 snacking and, 93, 102-105 Vitamin BE intake, 46-47,131,133, 134 Vitamin C, 26-36, 131 assessment of status, 26 data from NHANES II, 2~34 food variety and, 131, 134 intake, and income, 46 0 7 intake data, 28, 32-36 NFCS and, 35-36 nutritional status, 26 poverty status and, 28, 34 serum levels, 2~34 supplements use and, 28-36 Vitamin supplements, 28-36 Vitamins vitamin A, 131, 134 vitamin B6, 18, 46 47, 91, 93, 102- 105, 109-120, 131,133, 134 vitamin B t2, 4~47, 131, 133, 134 vitamin C, 2~36, 4~47, 131, 134 W Welsh, Susan, 7-20 Woteki, Catherine, 21-39 z Zinc, 18, 3~38, 149 dietary intake, 37-38 food supply and, 37 NFCS and, 37 NHANES I! data, 3~37 nutritional status and, 38 RDAs and, 37 serum levels, 3~37

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