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Snacking and Eating Away from Home KAREN J. MORGAN and BASILE GOUNGETAS Affluence, changes in lifestyle, greater employment of women, smaller households, increased accessibility to commercial food establishments, and increased availability of highly processed foods have influenced the U.S. population's food consumption patterns. Some researchers believe that these factors have led to overconsumption of such dietary components as fat, cholesterol, refined carbohydrate, and sodium (Abrams, 1978; Bunch and Hall, 19831. Overconsumption of these components may be linked with many health problems now prevalent in the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (USDA and USDHEW, 1980~. In addition to overconsumption is the problem of nutrient deficiency. Both the National Health and Examination Survey II (NHANES II) and the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) have identified calcium and iron as "problem nutrients" nutrients not consumed at levels equiv- alent to the National Research Council's (NRC) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) (NRC, 1980) for all age-sex groups. The NFCS has also indicated that magnesium and vitamin B6 may be problem nutrients (Carroll et al., 1983; USDA, 19841. The extent to which the reported average low-level intakes reflect a national health threat is difficult to determine; however, it is prudent to monitor continually estimated intake levels of problem nutrients and associated food consumption patterns. Although the per capita caloric consumption of U.S. residents has re- mained roughly the same as that 70 years ago (Bogart et al., 1973), eating patterns have changed dramatically during the same period. For example, 91

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92 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITION CONSEQUENCES Pao and Mickle (1980) established that 59% to 70% of U.S. children and teenagers had at least one snack per day. Similar snacking frequencies for children and teenagers have been reported by other researchers (Bundy et al., 1982; Cala et al., 19811. Pao and Mickle (1980) also reported that adults snacked less frequently than children and teenagers; 40% to 64% of the surveyed adults consumed at least one snack per day. Another change in the U.S. population's food consumption patterns is the increase in food eaten away from home. The percentage of the food dollar spent on away-from-home food consumption increased from 27% in 1960 to more than 33% in 1970, and it is expected to exceed 40% by the mid- 1980s (Putnam and Van Dress, 19841. Utilizing the NFCS, Guenther and Chandler (1980) reported that 44% of the total sample consumed some food away from home on the day surveyed. Research continues to identify food consumption patterns of the U.S. population and to relate these patterns to nutnent intake levels. Another research effort concentrates on the elucidation of relationships between diet and the development and progression of chronic, degenerative dis- eases. For example, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and various cancers have been linked to dietary intake patterns (Kornitzer et al., 1979; McGill, 1979; McGill and Mott, 1976; Pooling Project Research Group, 1978; Shekelle et al., 1981~. If demographic and lifestyle trends can be linked to significant changes in food consumption pattems, and the as- sociated dietary intake differences can be linked to the incidence of chronic diseases, then implications of nutrition education and research programs will have more direct effects on food and health policy. METHODS This study explored two specific eating patterns: snacking and consum- ing meals away from home. Both eating patterns were evaluated by the same methods. Thus, a detailed description of methods used to study snack consumption is provided, followed by a brief description of the methods used to assess away-from-home meal consumption. Data Three-day dietary records from USDA,s NFCS were used for this in- vestigation. The NFCS methodology has been described at length else- where (USDA, 1980~. For the present study, the sample was screened so that only persons aged 1 year and older who had complete 3-day records, including specification of kind of eating occasion and place of food ob- tainment, were included. Weights were deemed unreliable after the screen-

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SNACKING AND EATING AWAY FROM HOME 93 ing and were not used; the resultant sample size was 27,322 unweighted persons. Intakes of food energy, fat, cholesterol, sodium, total sugar, calcium, vitamin Be, iron, and magnesium were calculated from the intake data by using the Michigan State University (MSU) Nutrient Data Bank (Morgan and Zabik, 19831. The relationship between the USDA Nutrient Data Bank and the MSU Nutrient Data Bank has been described in detail by Fischer et al. (in press). Although the unit of observation was the person, some of the variables in the analyses were specified at the household level. Therefore, persons were matched with households to identify the necessary household char- acteristics. The personal characteristics used in the analysis were age and sex. Also included in the analysis were season of the year and day of the week when the intake data were collected. Analyses Snacking Patterns. To assess patterns of snack consumption, the sam- ple was partitioned by the numbers of snacks a person reported consuming during the 3 surveyed days. These partitions were zero, one to three, four to six, seven to nine, and ten or more snacks. Ordinary least-squares regressions were used to identify the snackers (SASI, 19821. Estimated regression coefficients for each of the selected personal and household characteristics were determined by using the number of snacks consumed during 3 surveyed days as the dependent variable. These regressions were estimated for the total sample and for each of 12 age-sex groups: males and females (aged 1 to 6 years and 7 to 12 years), males (aged 13 to 18 years, 19 to 24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years? and 65 years and older), and females (aged 13 to 18 years, 19 to 24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and 65 years and older). To evaluate the resulting coef- ficient estimates, t-statistics were used (SASI, 19821. The independent variables in the regressions were selected and evaluated as follows. Per capita annual income was hypothesized to have a positive relationship with snack consumption. The per capita annual income levels were partitioned into six groups: $999 or less, $1,000 to $3,999, $4,000 to $6,999, $7,000 to $9,999, $10,000 to $16,999, and $17,000 or more. Unfortunately, 6,622 persons did not report income; therefore, analyses with the income variable were restricted to 20,700 persons. Household size was hypothesized to have an inverse relationship with snack con- sumption, i.e., members of small households are less likely to consistently prepare and consume complete meals. The sample partitions for household size were one, two, three, four, five, and six or more persons per house- hold. The independent variables of age and sex were included in the

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94 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES regression analyses to reflect changing nutritional requirements and as proxies for age-related food consumption patterns. It was hypothesized that children and teenagers snack more frequently than adults. Head of household was identified as dual, male only, or female only and was used as a proxy for family composition. Households with one head were assumed to contain persons who snack more because regular meals are likely to be less organized. Education level of household headers) was used as a proxy for nutrition knowledge and ability to make informed food choices. The education variable included two categones: less than high school education and high school education or more. Employment of household heads, specified as employed or not employed, was incor- porated as a proxy for the opportunity cost of time. Degree of urbanization and region of the county where persons resided were included in the regressions as proxies for lifestyle and differing availabilities of foods. Persons who reside in suburban and central city areas are believed to snack more because of He accessibility of food stores and fast-food outlets. There was no basis for anticipating differences in snacking due to region of county, but this variable was included to control for possible inte~regional price effects. Because snack consumption is believed to be higher on weekend days than on weekdays, He day of the week on which intake data were collected was reflected in the specified regressions. It was also hypothesized that more snacking may occur in summer months than in other seasons because eating schedules are gen- erally less routine during this period, especially for children and teenagers. The impact of snack consumption on diet quality was assessed by calculating the average daily intake of selected dietary components for groups of people classified by age and sex as well as by the number of snacks consumed during 3 surveyed days. The percentages of total daily intake of each dietary component obtained from foods consumed as snacks were also calculated. Away-from-Home Eating Patterns. The methods used to determine what kind of person ate venous numbers of meals away from home were similar to those used for identifying snackers. That is, ordinary least- squares regressions were determined, with number of meals consumed away from home dunug 3 surveyed days (i.e., zero, one to two, three to four, five to six, and seven or more meals) as the dependent variable. The independent variables were the same as those for snackers. Average nutrient intake levels were calculated for groups classified by age and sex as well as by number of meals consumed away from home during 3 surveyed days. In summary, it was hypothesized that households of smaller size and

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SNACKING AND EATING AWAY PROM HOME 95 those with higher per capita income consume more meals away from home. Employment of household heads (particularly female household heads), single household heads, and degree of urbanization were anticipated to have a positive relationship with away-from-home food consumption. Combined Effects of Snacking and Eating Away from Home. Regression analyses were also conducted to determine combined effects of snacking and consuming meals away from home. The proportion of caloric intake obtained from consumed snacks was the dependent variable; independent variables were the same as those in previously described regression anal- yses but with an additional dummy variable for away-from-home meal consumption. Persons were considered away-from-home meal consumers if they consumed three or more meals away from home during the 3 surveyed days. Results from this regression indicated the need to inves- tigate further the relationship between snacking and away-from-home meal consumption. This final step in the analysis consisted of partitioning the total sample into away-from-home meal consumers and at-home meal consumers and regressing previously specified explanatory variables on the percentage of total caloric intake obtained from consumed snacks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR SNACKING Identification of Persons Who Snacked Table 1 provides estimated regression coefficients relating selected household and personal characteristics to numbers of snacks consumed during 3 days surveyed for the total sample and for seven selected age- sex subsamples. Regression results for age-sex subsamples that were not selected for discussion here because of space limitations were similar to those for the ones selected. Although per capita income, household size, and age (total sample regression only) were continuous variables, the remainder of the variables were qualitative and incorporated in the spec- if~cations as dummy variables. Qualitative effects for female (total sample regression only), spring quarter, weekdays, dual head of household, less Can high school education of household heads, employed household heads, Northeast region, and central city were included in the intercept. As indicated by the signs for the estimated beta coefficients and the t- statistic values in Table 1, increasing per capita income had a positive effect on the numbers of snacks consumed by the total sample and by all age-sex groups. Increasing household size, however, had a negative effect on the numbers of snacks consumed by the total sample and by five of the seven age-sex groups. Within the total sample, age was inversely

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96 ^ t— ° 4— o X Ct ~ ca et D C) ._ ._ v' E ~ o _ ~ ° 8 o o ~ o V) E ~ o ~ _ _ ~ U) = o ~ —o ~ REV ~ ·O of Cal a ~ ~ O O ~ .= O ·= 3 ~ >, ~ o Is ~ ~ ._ ~ ~ U. ~ US o o ~ ~ o D E" CQ ~ o e E * o C: u' C°) ~: :: (_ <: D =0 .H ~ V == fi C~ ~ _ _ _ ul _ _ r~ _ ~ _ oo _ oo _ o oo oo ~ ~ o - - ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ O ~ oo oO ~ d. ~ ~ - }— o X o ~ o C~ o ~ o ~ o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ 0 ~ oo — — ~ ~o ~ ~ ~o ~ 0 ~ r~ ~ c~ — ~ — o o o o o o o o o o o I I I I — — i I I i I I I I ~ oo U~ t ~,. - , o o ~ ~ o ~q o o o o o o 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 oo o ~ o~ ~ ~ oo o oo . . . . . . . . . . o o o ~ o ~ o o o 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — o~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~o ~ o~ == ~ - . . . . . . o o ~ o 1 1 1 1 1 1 o~ ~ . . . o o _ 1 oo . . o 1 1 - _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o~ ~ cr' — oo — x 0 ~ 0 — ~ cr — . O ~ O O O O Ol Oi O _ Ol Ol oo - ~ - o ~ . . o o 1 - - - ~ o - . . o ~ 1 1 - ~ - ~ - oo ~ s o~ o~ . . . . oo oo i I I I - - ~ - - - ~ - v~ - - - - - ~ - ~ - o ~ ~ ~ o ~ csY ~ o - ~ ~ ~ ~ - t — ~ O ~D — ~ O ~ O O O u~ — ~ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o ~ o - o ~ o - o o o - o ~ o - 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 - - - - - ~ _ _ CJ~ _ ~— _ 0\ _ 0S _ — _ ~ _ ~ ~ oo ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ o ko o o o ~ o c~ o ~ o - o ~ o oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o Yo o ~ o ~ o - o o o - o - o o ~ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ - o ~ ~ - oo - ~ - ~ ~ ~ - =' ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ cr t—00 C~ C~ t—d — — ~— X ~ O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cn - ~ - - 4) 4) 'v - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~— E ~ ~— ~ o~ ~ ~ ~— oo ~ ~ ~ - £ c~, ^ '-~ ~— t~ °' _ . ~ ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ 11 ~ 11 ~ 11 ~ 11 ~ 11 11 ~ 11 Z; ~ Z I Z ~ Z ~ Z I Z ~ Z ~ Z

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98 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES related to numbers of snacks consumed. This finding is consistent with previous analyses (Pao and Mickle, 1980~. Coefficients for season of the year showed that only the regressions for the total sample and for elderly males provided consistent results with the hypothesis that more snacking occurs in the summer months. However, children and adolescents did consume significantly fewer snacks during the fall and winter seasons. The numbers of snacks reported were not significantly different for day of the week. Although snack consumption patterns were not significantly different among persons residing in duaI-headed households and in male-headed households, persons residing in female-headed households (except for three age-sex groups) tended to consume significantly fewer snacks. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that single-headed households snack more frequently, perhaps indicating that snacks serve a social func- tion in households with two heads. The education level of female heads was positively related to numbers of snacks consumed by household mem- bers, significantly so in the majority of the age-sex subsamples. If level of education served as a proxy for nutrition knowledge or ability to make appropriate food choices, then snacks were evidently viewed as healthful by educated female household heads. The presence of an unemployed male household head, for the most part, significantly decreased the num- bers of snacks consumed. Place of residence influenced the numbers of snacks consumed. Persons residing in the South had significantly fewer snacks than those residing in the Northeast and, to a more limited extent, in the West. Furthermore, persons who resided in suburban areas tended to snack more frequently than those residing in central city and nonmet- ropolitan areas. Diet Quality of Snackers Tables 2 and 3 provide mean daily intake levels of dietary components for each of the age-sex groups when partitioned by the numbers of snacks consumed during 3 surveyed days. (See Analyses section for the five partitions by number of snacks. Subsequent results and discussion will also refer to these five partitions.) Children (7 to 12 Years). For children, average daily intakes of all dietary components, except cholesterol, increased with increasing numbers of snacks consumed per day. Although not shown in Table 2, fat intake provided 40.5% of total caloric intake for the nonsnacking children, whereas 40.8~o, 39.8%, 38.9%, and 37.8% of total caloric intake was obtained through fat consumption by those children who had increasing numbers

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116 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES lesterol, sodium, and iron and the highest percentage of caloric intake from fat consumption (43.3%~. There were no significant differences among the five groups for average levels of cholesterol, sodium, total sugar, calcium, and iron intake. All groups had lower than recom- mended amounts of calcium, vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium in their diets. Elderly Males (65 Years and Older). There were no statistically sig- nif~cant differences among the five groups of elderly males for average intakes of the investigated dietary components. In general, average intake levels of cholesterol were more than adequate; average sodium intakes were within the ESA range; average iron intakes were adequate; and average calcium, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes were inadequate for all five groups. Percentages of caloric intake obtained from fat and from total sugar were lowest (38.9% and 13.5%, respectively) for the males who consumed five to six meals away from home and for those who consumed seven or more meals away from home. Elderly Females (65 Years and Older). The only significant differ- ences in intake levels among the five groups of elderly females were for food energy and fat; those consuming five to six meals away from home had higher intake levels than those consuming seven or more meals away from home. In general, average cholesterol intakes were appropriate, average sodium intakes were within the ESA range, and iron intakes were adequate; however, all groups of elderly females had average intakes of calcium, vitamin B6, and magnesium that were lower than the recom- mended amounts. Dietary Component intake from Meals Consumed Away from Home. Table ~ shows the average percentages of dietary components obtained from meals consumed away from home. If it is assumed that (1) meals consumed away from home should provide a 1:1 ratio of food energy to problem nutrients and a ~ :1 ratio of food energy to overconsumed dietary components and (2) errors in data collection, as well as in nutrient data banks, are such that this equivalency ratio of 1:1 can be modified by a variation of + 2%, then the information in Table 8 can be used to evaluate persistence of differences in diet quality of away-from-home meal con- sumers. That is, one can observe whether, with increasing numbers of meals consumed away from home, the percentages of problem nutrients obtained from away-from-home meals were approximately equivalent (2% or less) to the percentage of food energy obtained and whether percentages

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SNACKING AND EATING AWAY FROM HOME 117 of overconsumed dietary components were greater than (2% or more) percentages of food energy obtained. For example, increased away-from-home meal consumption by children was related to increased intakes of sodium, calcium, and magnesium as well as to increased cholesterol consumption. Three or more of the reported percentages for sodium, calcium, and magnesium increased the same as the percentage of food energy, + 2%, with increased numbers of meals consumed away from home. Two of the reported percentages for choles- terol increased the same as the percentage of food energy, +2%, with increased numbers of meals consumed away from home. For adolescent males, increased away-from-home meal consumption was related to in- creased consumption of sodium, calcium, and magnesium and somewhat related to increased consumption of cholesterol and iron. For adolescent females, there was a relationship between increased away-from-home meal consumption and proportionate increases in sodium, calcium, vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium and a weaker association with cholesterol. Table ~ shows that for adult males there was a strong, positive asso- ciation between away-from-home meal consumption and proportionate increases in sodium, vitamin B6, and iron intakes, whereas there was a weaker positive association with increased cholesterol intake. Results in- dicate a positive relationship between increased numbers of meals con- sumed away from home and proportionate increases in fat and iron for both adult and elderly females and in sodium for adult females. A weaker positive relationship was determined for cholesterol (in both groups of women), for sodium in elderly females, and for calcium, vitamin B6, and magnesium in adult females. Only fat and iron showed proportionate increases in dietary component intake with increased numbers of meals consumed away from home for elderly males. In summary, away-from-home meal consumption had somewhat dif- ferent effects on diet quality for different age groups. Although increased away-from-home meal consumption by children generally provided easily observable increased intakes of food energy, fat, sodium, and total sugar, these intake patterns also provided proportionate (in relation to food energy intake) increases in cholesterol, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. For adolescent males, magnesium was the only dietary component that in- creased significantly with increased away-from-home meal consumption; however, proportionate increases were observed for cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, and magnesium. In contrast, increased away-from-home meal consumption by adolescent females resulted in increases in food energy, fat, cholesterol, sodium, calcium, vitamin B6, iron, and magne- sium. For adult males, increased away-from-home meal consumption pro- vided significantly lower intakes of vitamin B6 and calcium. When related

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118 ARC C) C &. As: JO ._ sit ~ D t o e . 0 ~ ~ O of ~ ~ E; | a ·C=) _ Vim ~ ~1= 05 ~1 ' ~ ~ an O ~ ~ 43 s.5 D 3 ~ z ~ :r — rat 0 — ~ — 0 ~ . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ cr ~ d. ~— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0\ ~ _ CN 0\ _ _ ~—~ \0 . . . . 00 Vat 00 ~ _ - , ~ so ~ ~ ~ ~ t—00 0\— . . . . . . . . m~~ - om~ - - - - - - - - ~ ~ oo ~ . . . . - ~ ~ ~ =~ - d- . . . . o ~ ~ ~ - - - - ~ os ~ ~ . . . . - ~ ~ oo oo ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ - - - - ~ ~ ~ oo . . . . - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ . . . . - - - - ~ u~ - ~ . . . . o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ . . . ~ ~ oo - - - - ~ o ~ ~ oo . . . . oo ~ - o - ] ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o . . . . - ~ oo ~ - - - - oo d ~ ~ . . . . ~ u, - ~ _ r~ sD oo ~ o ~ ~ . . . . , - ~ ~ oo - oo - ~ . . . . ~ ~ - ~ - - ~ - ~ u) ~ ~ . . . . - ~ ~ x o oo ~ - oN ~ t - - . . . ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ - - - - - - - - ~ oo ~ o . . . . ~ oo - u~ Yo oo - ~ - ~ - ko ~ Yo ~ . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - . . . . oo ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ x ~ o . . . . - ~= ~ - - - - ~ ~ _ cr . . . . o - ~ ~ ~ Y . . . . ~=o~ - - ~ - mmoo ~ . . . oo ~ ~ o _ ~ ~D oO ~ o ~ ~ . . . . - ~ ~ ~ - - - - . . . . o o ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ . . . ~ oo oo ~ - ~ ~ ~ — - - - - - t _ ~ ~ A\ . . . . ~ ~ ~ o _ ~ ~ X oo . . . . _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ o~ . . . . oo _ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o . . . . ~ ~ o U~ _ _ ~ _ . . . . ~o ~ _ _ - , ~ oo ~ ~ ~ o~ . . . . o~ o ~ — _ ~ ~ oo U~ U~ ~ oo . . . . _ _ _ ~ ~ o o ~ . . . . oo _ - , . . . . ~ ~ oo ~ _ _ _ _ _ ~o o ~ . . . . o o U~ ~ ~ d. ~ oo o ~ _ Cr~ . . . . U) oo o ~o _ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ o . . . . _ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ o U, ~o ~ oo oo . . . . . . . . _ ~ v, ~ ~ d- ~D ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ C~ ~ o . . . . Q ~ _ - , so oo U~ . . . . 0\ — ~ ~ oo . . . . Oo ~ ~ r~ _ O _ ;^ (~ ~ _ oo ~ ~ ~ _ — 11 11 11 o - - w ~ ~ ~ Z O ~ 0 - _ ,~, ~ A\ o~ ~ _ ~ . . . . o~ ~ ~ ~ _ - , ~ eo o oo ~ . . . . o ~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _ — d ~ ~ . . . . o~ oo _ _ ~ ~o - >` _ _ _ _ _ oo ~ oo _ _ t1 11 11 X Z Z Z 11 _ _ _ _ ca ~ ~ ~ Z ~ _ ° ~ ~

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119 C == ~i ~e a c v x ~3 e~ e^ 3 ~o E ._ ~ U' C~ 1o 1 ~ ~1o o oo~ ~ a E `: e ~ Cd C~ ;>, 4, 3 ~ o ~ C ou ~ — ~ o o Z ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ . . . . _ ~ o — _I _ ~ ~ _ ~q oo oo . . . . _ oo oo . . . . ~ ~ o ~ _ _ ~ _ ~ ~ V) o . . . . Oo ~ oo cr~ _ oo . . . . o ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~ . . . . oo _ ~ U) ~ ~ ~ o . . . . o _ _ o ~ ~ ~ . . . . X o _ _ ,_ ~ U~ . . . . ~ ~o o— _ _ oo ~ o~ _ . . . . co 0 cr~ _ ~ U. _ ~ ~ cr~ . . . . _ _ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ o . . . . oo o _ ~ o ~ ~ . . . . o ~ o ~ - - ~ . . . . ~ ~ oo ~ - ~ ~ ~ K oo oo . · . . k - - ~ ~ ~ - - . . . . s ~ ~ ~ c~ . . . . o - ~ ~ oo ~ ox . . . . ~ oo oo ~ - ~ ~ ~ . . . . - - , ~ - - - - . . . . ~ oo oo ~ - ~ ~ ~ oo ~ o ~ . . . . - ~ ~ o - - - . . . . oN ~ ~ oN N 0 cr _ . . . . d — - - ~ N u) . . . . oo ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ - v ko ~ ~ - o - ~ ~ ~ ~ o Yo ~ o - ~ ~ ~ - - ~ ~ - - ~ - - - oo oo ~ ~ . . . . - ~ ~ ~ cr'— ~ oo . . . . c~ oo o - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ . . . . - ~ ~ ko o - oo ~ . . . ~ ~ ~ oo - - - - om - = . . . . - ~ ~ ~ Yo oo . . . . - ~ ~ - u~ - ~ oo . . . . - ~ ~ oo ) - . . . . ~ ~ - ~ - - ~ - ~ ~ oo a~ . . . . o\mo- o _ ~ ~D ~ ~ ~ ~ oN . . . . ~ ~ o oo m== ~ c~ ~ - . . . . rn oo O O - - ~ ~ . . . . ~D _ _ - ~ ~ ~ ~o ~n . . . . ~ oo o ~ - - ~ ~ ox . . . . o ~ v~ ~ o oo o - . . . . - ~ ~ ~ . . . . oo ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ Y . . . . ~ oo o - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - . . . . o ~ ~ ~ So ~ ~ ~ ~ o - ko . . . . . . . . o ~ ~ u~ - ~ oo ~ - - - - - - - ~ o ~ oo ~ . . . . ~ ~ oo ~ - ~ ~ ~ - ~ v~ o oo :^ 11 11 11 ° Z Z Z 11 ~ - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ z - t ',, _ ~ ~ A\ ~ ~ o oo . . . . _ r~ e' 0\ ~ ~ t_ _ . . . . ~ oo ~ ~o _ _ ~ . . . . oo ~ ~ _ ~ et. oo n . . . . o ~ ~ ~ . . . . oo _ o~ . . . . U~ ~ ~ oo _ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ oo . . . . o — — d- ~ C~ ~_ - U~ - C~ 4, ~ ~ o ~ . . . . cr'— Q ~ —d SD - d. —— c~ ~ o — d. — ~ 11 11 11 ° 11 ~ ~ ~ z - - - ~ - ~ _ - , ~ A\ ~ oo ~ ~ . . . . ~ oo —Cr~ _ 0 0 cr . . . . ~ In 0 ~ _ _ ~ . . . . V~ — r~ ~ cr~ o ~ C~ . . . . ~ ~ o ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ _ ~ . . . . cr ~ ~ oo _ ~ ~ C~ = - oo . . . . — o _ ~ ~ oo ~ o . . . . oo ~ o ~o - ~ ~ oo ~ . . . . ~ ~ oo ~ _ _ _ o — o ~ . . . . o~ oo . . . . o=~ - _ _ _ U~ o ~ ~ . . . . _ o 11 11 11 ;- Z Z Z 11 ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z U: _ o o ~ ,i' —~ ~ A\ ~ ~ oo ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ oo ~ . . . . o ~ oo U~ ~ ~ U~ ~ o— . . . . _ _ - o _ O ~ —d — ;^ C~ ~ o~ _ ~ . . . . _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z ° _ _ ~ _ ~ ~ A\

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120 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES to changes in food energy intake, however, away-from-home meals pro- vided proportionately more cholesterol, sodium, vitamin B6, and iron. Generally, adult females who consumed increasing numbers of meals away from home had a significantly lower intake of vitamin B6 and significantly higher intakes of fat and magnesium. For these same females, fat, cho- lesterol, sodium, calcium, vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium intakes in- creased to a greater extent than food energy intake with increasing numbers of meals consumed away from home. Although there were no easily observable changes in dietary component intake levels with increasing numbers of meals consumed away from home by elderly males and fe- males, proportionate increases were observed for fat and iron for both elderly males and females and for cholesterol and sodium among the elderly females. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR COMBINED ANALYSIS OF SNACKING AND EATING AWAY FROM HOME Table 9 provides estimated regression coefficients when away-from- home meal consumption was included as an additional independent var- iable, influencing the percentage of calories obtained from snack con- sumption. Comparison of results in Table 1 with results in Table 9 shows that most of the beta coefficients remained the same in sign and signifi- cance. The important finding in Table 9 is that when the percentage of calories obtained from consumed snacks increased, away-from-home meal consumption significantly decreased. This significant relationship between snack consumption and away- from-home meal consumption prompted the specification of two additional regressions. The total sample was partitioned into at-home meal consumers and away-from-home meal consumers. As indicated in Table 9, the persons who consumed none or very few meals away from home tended to obtain significantly more calories from snacks with increased per capita income; this relationship was not significant for persons who consumed several of their meals away from home. However, beta coefficients were the same in sign and significance for the two partitioned samples with regard to household size, age, sex, and degree of urbanization. Whereas away- from-home meal consumers obtained a significantly lower percentage of total calories from consumed snacks in the fall and winter seasons than in the spnng, at-home meal consumers obtained a significantly greater percentage of total calories from consumed snacks in the summer Can in the spring. In addition, the away-from-home consumers obtained more calories from snacks on weekend days; for at-home meal consumers, there was no significant difference in snack consumption for day of the week.

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121 Us Cot ~ o ° ~ V o o, In ~ ~ C) ~ _ ~ = U. ~ ~ =.S ~ D b0 ~ _ 'O =0 O em :C ~ ~ C ce u, ~ O o So ~ ~ ~ ;^ ~ ~ 3 U. ~ o _} ~ _.S C) ~ ~ ~ O-- ~ ~ ·5 o en ~ ~ E 0~ ~ ~o {_ .S ~ ~ C~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~:14 °` E ~ ~U~ * D .5 Ct . o 7 o =: o C~ ]~^ o C: o 3 _ 3 X 43 08 U' 8.3 U. - ~ y U. oo _ ~ ~ o U~ ~ o~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V, . . . . . . _ V) _ ~ _ ~ 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ oo '_ ~ _ o~ ~ oo ~ ~n 0 oo ~ _ o . . . . . . o _ _ ~ o o _ _ _ ~ ~ o . o_ o 1 1 1 _ o e' ~ o _ o~ oo 1 ~ 1 1 _ _ ~o _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ ~ oo . . . . oo _~ _ _ _ ~ _ O u~ ~D o~ . . . o _ ~ I t I _ _ _ ~o . . _ ~ 1 1 - d- '4:) O ~ ~ oo U~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . o ~ o ~ o o oS - cr' ~ - ~ o - o ~ - o' oo ~ oo . . o o - ~ - ~ - - - g ~i o ~ S ~ o o o ~ o ~o 1 ~ 1 - 1 1 - - - - - ~ ~o ~ . o ~ 1 1 - - ~ - oo - - ~ ~ oo . . . ~ om I I i - - ~ - ~ - ~ o oo - ~ o ~ . . . . . . o ~ o ~ o o ~ §m -- o ~ ~D ~ ~] O~ c - ~ - ~ - E ~ o~ ~ ~ ~ oo .c ~ ~ C~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e: _ o— ~ o =° EZ ~Z o _ ~ 6 6 - oo - 11 _ 4~ o .= C~ .-

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122 ._ s:: o * .- W W W & 3 E g E Zo E U. U. e Z 0 Z E 5 _ C) U. X A\ v, :r ~\ & c~ ~ oo 0 ~ . . _ ~ 1 1 _ oo _ ~ _ ~ _ oo ~ 0 ~ ~ ~o —o~ _ ~t. ~ ~ . . . . . . 0 o 0 o 0 _ ~ 0 o~ ~ ~ ~o - , t— _ _ ~ ~ . . . . · — _ ~ _ ~ _ ~ _ _ _ ,~, ~ _ _ ~ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo o~ ~ oo oo _ ~ . . . . . . 0m o~ —~ 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 _ _ _ _ o~ ~o . . 1 — 1 0 8 "c 04 8_ 3 I /\\ e O ~ O '_ ~o 00 "e ~ E _', _- o- o~.~ _ _ _ 8 ~ D aoC~~= , -8 ~— O D— ~ ~-s ~ oo _ E E E E 8 O o 3~ uo- ,, E E v~ ~ ~ z _ _ ~o o~ . . 1 — - 1 1 1 o~ o_ ^ r~ ~ oo cr~ _ . . . . . . o— oo om 1 — 1 1 1 1 _ _ o _ oo ~ _ Yo _ _ 1 1 - ~ o ~ ~ ~ oo oo oo oo 1 1 1 1 ~ _ - _ o~ so o ~ ~ ~ _ . . . . _ t_ _ ~ _ _ o~ _ _ oo o o - - 11 ~= 8 o E3 ~ ~c 8 - 11 z . _

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SNACKING AND EATING AWAY FROM HOME 123 These results most likely indicate Mat the sample of away-from-home meal consumers was composed primarily of school-aged children who consumed school lunch regularly and who, during the week, had fewer hours to consume snacks. Other significant differences between snack consumption patterns forge two groups included the following: (1) Away- from-home meal consumers residing in households with only a female head ate fewer snacks Man those residing in dual-headed households, whereas there were no significant differences in snack consumption for at-home meal consumers in relation to head of household. (2) Although at-home meal consumers residing in the North Central region consumed significantly fewer snacks than those residing in the Northeast, this sig- nif~cant difference was not present for away-from-home meal consumers. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Snacking and eating away from home are two common food consump- tion patterns in the United States. Therefore, knowing who in the popu- lation exhibits these eating patterns and how these two eating patterns influence nutritional well-being is of importance to government policy- makers, educators, and health-related professionals. In general, the results of this study suggest Hat where and when persons eat do not strongly influence their nutritional well-being. Good nutrition requires that people learn to eat in a rational way, whether snacking, eating at home, or eating away from home. Regardless of where or when persons eat, they need to consume a variety of foods and eat them in the right proportions. These analyses indicate possible differences in food consumption pat- terns of snackers versus nonsnackers and of away-from-home meal con- sumers versus at-home meal consumers. With our data, however, the differences are small. Thus, linking these two eating patterns to variations in persons' health status would be difficult. Perhaps future research should concentrate on population groups that are nutritionally at risk (e.g., low- income populations, less-educated populations). For the population studied here, most evidence indicated Mat persons consumed foods in a rational way and that where and when foods were consumed had very limited impact on their nutritional status. REFERENCES Abrams, I. J. 1978. Determining consumer demand and marketing opportunities for nutritional products. Food Technol. (Chicago) 32(9):79-85. American Heart Association. 1978. American Heart Association committee report: Diet and coronary heart disease. Circulation 58:762A-765A.

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24 EATING TRENDS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES Bogart, J. L., G. M. Bnggs, and D. H. Calloway. 1973. Nutrition and Physical Fitness, 9th ed. W. B. Saunders and Co., Philadelphia. Bunch, K., and L. Hall. 1983. Factors Affecting Nutrient Consumption. Agricultural Economic Research Report No. 22. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Bundy, K. T., K. J. Morgan, and M. E. Zabik. 1982. Nutritional adequacy of snacks and sources of total sugar intake among U.S. adolescents. J. Can. Diet. Assoc. 4:358-365. Cala, R. F., K. J. Morgan, and M. E. Zabik. 1981. The contribution of children's snacks to total dietary intakes. Home Econ. Res. J. 10:150-159. Carroll, M. D., S. Abraham, and C. M. Dresser. 1983. Dietary Intake Source Data: United States, 1976-80. Vital and Health Statistics, series 11, no. 231. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 83- 1681, National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. GoverruT~ent Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Fischer, D. R., K. J. Morgan, and M. E. Zabik. In press. Cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium and potassium intakes of the U.S. population. J. Am. College Nutr. Guenther, P. M., and C. A. Chandler. 1980. Nutrients in foods at home and away. Pp. 508- 516 in Proceedings of the 1981 Agncultural Outlook Conference, Session #29. November 17-20, 1980. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Haines, P. S. 1983. Away from home food consumption practices and nutrient intakes of young adults. Pp. 72-80 in Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the American Council on Consumer Interests, March 16-19, 1983, Kansas City, Missouri. American Council on Con- sumer Interests, Columbia, Mo. Kinsey, J. 1981. Food away from home expenditures by source of household income. Paper presented at the AMua1 Meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association, Clem- son, S.C. Kornitzer, M., G. Backer, M. Dramaix, and C. Thilly. 1979. Regional differences in risk factor distributions, food habits and coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity in Belgium. Int. J. Epidemiol. 8:23-31. Lippert, A., and D. O. Love. In press. Family expenditures for meals away from home and prepared foods—new evidence. Am. J. Agric. Econ. McGill, H. C. 1979. The relationship of dietary cholesterol to serum cholesterol concentration and to atherosclerosis in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:2664-2702. McGill, H. C., and G. E. Mott. 1976. Diet and coronary heart disease. Pp. 37~391 in D. M. Hegsted, C. O. Chichester, W. J. Darby, K. W. McNutt, R. M. Stalvey, and E. H. Stotz, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 4th ed. The Nutrition Foundation, Inc., New York. Morgan, K. J., and M. E. Zabik. 1983. Michigan State University Nutrient Data Bank, 4th ed. Michigan State University, E. Lansing. NRC (National Research Council). 1980. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th ed. A report of the Food and Nutrition Board, Assembly of Life Sciences. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Pao, E. M., and S. I. Mickle. 1980. Nutrients from meals and snacks. Pp. 495-507 in Proceedings of the 1981 Agricultural Outlook Conference, Session #29. November 17-20, 1980. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Pooling Project Research Group. 1978. Relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smok- ing habit, relative weight and ECG abnormalities to incidence of major coronary events: Final report of the pooling project. J. Chronic Dis. 31:201-306. Prochaslca, F., and R. Schrimper. 1973. Opportunity cost of time and other socioeconomic effects on away from home food consumption. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 53:597-603. Putnam, J. J., and M. G. Van Dress. 1984. Changes ahead for eating out. Nat. Food Rev. 26: 15-17.

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SNACKING AND EATING AWAY FROM HOME 125 Redman, B. J. 1980. The impacts of women's time allocation on expenditures for meals away from home and prepared foods. Am. J. Agnc. Econ. 62:234-237. Shekelle, R. B., A. M. Shryrock, O. Paul, M. Lepper, J. Stamler, S. Liu, and W. J. Raynor. 1981. Diet, serum cholesterol and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric study. N. Engl. J. Med. 304:65-70. Smallwood, D., and J. Blaylock. 1981. Impact of Household Size and Income on Food Spending Patterns. Technical Bulletin No. 1650, National Economics Division, Economics and Statistics Service. U.S. Department of Agnculture, Washington, D.C. SASI (Statistical Analysis System Institute). 1982. SAS User's Guide. Sparks Press, Raleigh, N.C. U.S. Congress. 1977. Dietary Goals for the United States, 2nd ed. Senate Select Committee on Nutntion and Human Needs, U.S. Senate, 95th Congress, 1st Session, December 1977. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. USDA (U.S. Department of Agnculture). 1980. Food and Nutntion Intakes of Individuals in 1 Day in the United States. Spring 1977. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Preliminary Report No. 2. U.S. Department of Agnculture, Hyattsville, Md. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1984. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Report No. I-2. U.S. Department of Agnculture, Hyattsville, Md. USDA and USDHEW (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health, Edu- cation, and Welfare). 1980. Nutntion and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 15 pp.