who are developing military simulations, as well as to those who are responsible for providing the research and development framework for future military simulation activities.

STUDY APPROACH AND SCOPE

In the first phase of the study, several panel members attended workshops and conferences sponsored by DMSO and the Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) at which leading military contractors described their efforts to model human behavior for a variety of military simulations. The panel heard a review of modeling requirements, the state of military modeling in general, and current initiatives from representatives of DMSO. Selected presentations were obtained from specialists in the modeling community. An interim report reflecting this first phase of the study was produced in March 1997 (Pew and Mavor, 1997). During the second phase of the study, the panel held more extensive discussions with military modelers and others involved in human and organizational modeling and, taking advantage of the expertise within its membership, explored the scientific domain of human behavior to identify those areas in the literature that are pertinent to military modeling problems. The panel conducted a thorough review and analysis of selected theoretical and applied research on human behavior modeling as it applies to the military context at the individual, unit, and command levels.

It should be noted that discussion among the experts working in the domain of human behavior representation ranges much more broadly than is represented by the charge of this panel. Our focus was on the technology and knowledge available for developing useful and usable models of human behavior, from the individual combatant to the highest levels of command and control. Because they are important to the generation and success of such models, we also addressed the front-end analysis required as a prerequisite for model development and the verification and validation needed to ensure that models meet their stated requirements. The state of the art in the management of simulation and modeling processes, including scenario generation mechanisms and human interfaces to the models themselves, was considered outside the scope of the panel's work. Moreover, because the panel was charged to emphasize cognitive, team, and organizational behavior, computer science and artificial intelligence models that are not associated with behavioral organizational theories were not pursued, nor did the panel focus on theories and research related to sensory and motor behavior.

WHAT IS HUMAN BEHAVIOR REPRESENTATION?

The term model has different meanings for different communities. For some, a model is a physical replica or mock-up; for others, a model can be a verbal/analytical description or a block diagram with verbal labels. For the panel, use of



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