the term implies that human or organizational behavior can be represented by computational formulas, programs, or simulations. A simulation is a method, usually involving hardware and software, for implementing a model to play out the represented behavior over time. The term human behavior representation has been coined by the Department of Defense (DoD) modeling and simulation community to refer to the modeling of human behavior or performance that needs to be represented in military simulations. In this report we use the term human behavior representation to denote a computer-based model that mimics either the behavior of a single human or the collective action of a team of humans. The term may be used in the context of a self-contained constructive computer simulation that is used to simulate a battle and is run once or many times to produce outputs that reflect the battle outcomes, either individually or statistically. Or it may be used in the context of a distributed simulation of the behavior of selected battlefield elements that can be viewed by real crews performing in other battlefield element simulators, such as squads of individual soldiers, ground vehicles, or aircraft, so that the battle can be played out in the simulated world interactively.

Today's military services use human behavior representation for many different purposes. The main beneficiaries of improved behavior representations are the end-user communities for whom simulation has become an important tool in support of their activities. Training simulation users are instructors and trainees who use simulations for individual or team instruction. Mission rehearsal simulation users are members of operational forces who use simulations to prepare for specific missions. Analysis simulation users employ their simulations to evaluate alternative weapon systems, staffing requirements, doctrine, and tactics. Acquisition simulation users are those who use simulations to support acquisition decisions based on the anticipated performance of weapons systems. Joint force analysis simulation users address questions associated with improving the command, control, and communications interoperability of joint forces. In all of these domains, it has become valuable to include human behavior representation in the simulations. Of course, the scientists and engineers who will implement the models also stand to benefit from the availability of improved representations.

As the armed forces look to the future, they are attempting to identify and assess ways of effectively applying information technology, employing smart precision munitions, and integrating joint and combined operations to enhance military operations. These factors, coupled with the vision of employing military forces in an uncertain quasi-battle environment that requires information dominance to build the correct military response, add new dimensions to future battle actions. Greater importance will be placed on the ability of commanders to exercise command and control and make more precise battlefield decisions. In addition, there is increased ambiguity surrounding decisions about what military weapon systems should be developed, what joint scenarios and battle contingencies



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