based on psychological, organizational, and sociological theory. For individual combatants, it is important to represent the processes underlying the observable behavior, including attention and multitasking, memory and learning, decision making, perception and situation awareness, and planning. At the unit level it is important to represent the command and control structure, as well as the products of that structure. Added realism can also be achieved by representing a number of behavior moderators at the individual and organizational levels. Moderators at the individual level, such as workload and emotional stress, serve to enhance or degrade performance, as reflected in the speed and accuracy of performance. Moderators at the organizational level, including the average level of training, whether standard operating procedures are followed, the level and detail of those procedures, and the degree of coupling between procedures, all affect performance. In each of these essential areas, this report presents the panel's findings on the current state of knowledge, as well as goals for future understanding, development, and implementation. The goals found at the end of each chapter are presented as short-, intermediate-, and long-term research and development needs. The report also provides descriptions of integrative architectures for modeling individual combatants. Overall conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are presented as well. This summary presents the panel's overall recommendations in two broad areas: a framework for the development of models of human behavior, and infrastructure and information exchange. Detailed discussion of these recommendations is provided in Chapter 13 of this report.

A FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

The panel has formulated a general framework that we believe can guide the development of models of human behavior for use in military simulations. This framework reflects the panel's recognition that given the current state of model development and computer technology, it is not possible to create a single integrative model or architecture that can meet all the potential simulation needs of the services. The framework incorporates the elements of a plan for the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) to apply in pursuing the development of models of human behavior to meet short-, intermediate-, and long-term goals. For the short term, the panel believes it is important to collect real-world, wargame, and laboratory data in support of the development of new models and the development and application of human model accreditation procedures. For the intermediate term, we believe DMSO should extend the scope of useful task analysis and encourage sustained model development in focused areas. And for the long term, we believe DMSO should advocate theory development and behavioral research that can lead to future generations of models of human and organizational behavior. Work on achieving these short-, intermediate-, and long-term goals should begin concurrently. We recommend that these efforts be



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