and teams) and that of real forces; for less predictability of modeled forces, to prevent trainees from gaming the training simulations; for more variability due not just to randomness, but also to reasoned behavior in a complex environment, and for realistic individual differences among human agents; for more intelligence to reflect the behavior of capable, trained forces; and for more adaptivity to reflect the dynamic nature of the simulated environment and intelligent forces.

Authoritative behavioral representations are needed at different levels of aggregation for different purposes. At various times, representations are needed for the following:

  • Individual combatants, including dismounted infantry

  • Squad, platoon, and/or company

  • Individual combat vehicles

  • Groups of combat vehicles and other combat support and combat service support

  • Aircraft

  • Aircraft formations

  • The output of command and control elements

  • Large units, such as Army battalions, brigades, or divisions; Air Force squadrons and wings; and Navy battle groups

Representations are needed for OPFOR (opposing forces or hostiles), BLUFOR (own forces or friendlies) to represent adjacent units, and GRAYFOR (neutrals or civilians) to represent operations other than war and the interactions among these forces.


To illustrate the scope of military model requirements, the panel prepared a vignette describing the typical activities of an Army platoon leader preparing for and carrying out what is referred to as a "hasty defense"—a basic military operation in which a small unit of 16 soldiers manning four MI tanks is participating as a part of a larger force to defend a tactically important segment of the battlefield. The platoon leader's tasks include planning the defense, making decisions, rehearsing the mission, moving to and occupying the battle positions, and conducting the defense. This vignette is realistic as regards what is required of such an Army unit. Clearly none of the currently known modeling technologies or methods for representing human behavior can even come close to mimicking all the behaviors exhibited in this vignette, nor would they be expected to do so. The vignette is intended to provide an overview for the reader who is unfamiliar with the kinds of military operations that are typically trained. Annotations appearing throughout link various elements of the vignette to the discussion in later chapters of the report.

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