8.4 provides an overview of the human behavior representations, decision aids, and simulations reviewed in this section.

Planning Models in Military Human Behavior Representations

Adaptive Combat Model

The Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Management Office has a program in Adaptive Combat Modeling, aimed at modeling individual and unit-level behaviors in three separate phases (Fisk, 1997):

  • Phase 1: Route Planning

  • Phase 2: Control of Movement

  • Phase 3: Terrain Exploitation

The objective is to develop adaptive autonomous synthetic agents for use in tutoring systems and command trainers, and possibly as a knowledge-base source in advanced decision aids for fire support. For Phase 1, route planning in the face of multiple constraints (e.g., terrain obstacles, time, fuel) is being modeled through the use of genetic algorithms that serve to generate, evaluate, and evolve quasioptimal route solutions satisfying the overall route constraints (risk, personal communication). To date, no effort has been made to match the agent's performance with that of a human route planner, although the possibility exists—if there is more of a focus on human behavior model development, as opposed to tactical decision-aid development.

Commander's Visual Reasoning Tool

A high-level descriptive model of the staff course-of-action planning process is presented by Barnes and Knapp (1997). Although not properly a model, it provides an overview (through a command/staff dependency matrix) of the course-of-action planning activities undertaken by the brigade commander and his intelligence officer (S2), operations officer (S3), and fire support officer (FSO). It thereby provides a framework for ensuring that all individual commander/staff functions are represented in any subsequent command and control (C2) human behavior representation development effort. It also identifies the key points of interaction among team members (e.g., "provide commander's guidance to staff," "coordinate with division G2"), thus identifying communication channels and information flow within and outside of the commander/staff team.

Barnes and Knapp (1997) also describe an experimental tool—the commander's visual reasoning tool (CoVRT)—for prototyping future brigade C2 environments by means of a three-workstation network supporting the battle management functions of the commander, S2, and S3. Such a research environment could be used for future model validation efforts in developing scenarios

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