TABLE 8.4 Models for Planning in Military Human Behavior Representations (HBR)



Service (Domain)


Functions/Activities Modeled



Adaptive Combat Model

Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Office

Infantry/Marines (HBR models)

Individual and unit

Route planning

• Genetic algorithm optimization

• Currently an exploratory study

Commander's Visual Reasoning Tool (CoVRT)

Army Research Laboratory (ARL)

Army (decision support)


Course-of-action generation

• Decision-aiding workstation with graphic depiction of military entities

• Underlying command/staff dependency matrix provides over-all framework for information flow among HBR agents

Marine Computer-Generated Force (CGF)

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Hughes Research

Marine (HBR models)

Individual and unit

Route planning

• Production rule system driven by external state variables

• Multiple rulesets for different decision alternatives;

• Generation of single plan frame for ModSAF execution

Computer-Controlled Hostiles for Team Target Engagement Simulator (TTES)

Institute for Simulation and Training/University of Central Florida (IST/UCE)

Marine (HBR models)


Short-term planning for individual military operations in urban terrain activities

• Hierarchical goal decomposition;

• Decision-theoretic goal selection;

• Situation-driven rules

Appears to be single-step planner, but could be expanded to multiple steps for individual course-of-action generation

Fixed-wing Attack (FWA)-Soar and Soar-Intelligent Force Agents (IFOR)

DARPA, Air Force, University of Michigan (UMich), University of California/Los Angeles (UCLA), Carnegie Mellon University

Air Force (HBR models)

Individual and unit

Full activities of tactical pilots across a wide range of aircraft and missions

• Soar architecture with hierarchical goal decomposition;

• Efficient production rule system to deal with large rulebase;

• Situation-driven rules

• Planning not explicitly represented, as Soar supports only single-step planning;

• Could be expanded to support an explicit planning module

Rotary-Wing Attack (RWA)-Soar

DARPA, Army, UMich, UCLA

Army Aviation (HBR models)

Individual and unit (company)

Full activities of rotorcraft pilots and company commander for RWA mission

• Live battalion commander;

• Soar-CFOR company commander that:;—Generates mission plan;—Monitors progress;—Replans as necessary;

• Soar-IFOR RWA pilots;

• ModSAF vehicle entities

• Plan generation and elaboration done through tactical templates and standard operating procedures;

• Plan refinement done through checks on task interdependencies, timing

Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Army

Army Aviation (HBR models)

Individual and unit

Full activities of tactical rotorcraft pilots

• Symbolic operator model architecture with hierarchical mission activity decomposition;

• Production rule system to implement procedures;

• Situation-driven productions

• Similar to Soar in its top-down decomposition from mission phases to low-level activities;

• Single-step planning, but could be expanded to support an explicit planning module

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