• Investigate what types of changes in C3 structure are most likely to be adaptive, and address the way C3 architectures can be set up so that they can adapt to changing task environments. This may involve developing optimization procedures for environments in which the performance surface changes over time.

  • Begin to gather field data for evaluating dynamic C3 systems. Models for C3 adaptation at the organizational unit level often must take into account institutional, technological, and political factors that cannot be covered adequately by laboratory experiments in a limited time frame. A better understanding is needed of what kinds of data are required and how those data can be gathered.

  • Develop organizational unit-level models with C3 architectures that adapt dynamically in response to triggering events, such as depletion of resources or alterations in the rules of engagement.

  • Develop a framework or meta-language for describing and implementing organizational unit-level models. Progress on individual-level models was facilitated by the development of platforms, such as Soar, that integrate various aspects of human cognition and/or physiology. At the unit level, one of the most pressing issues is that development of unit-level models is extremely time-consuming, and each modeler spends part of his or her time reinventing basic procedures, such as communication protocols and algorithms for traversing the command structure. Research in this area indicates the need for a meta-language that will facilitate rapid linking of different types of agent models with models of both task and organizational structure. Such a language should have built-in default procedures for measuring performance and aspects of the task and C3 structures. No current language is sufficient for this purpose.

Long-Term Goals

  • Gather information on the conditions under which organizational unit-level behavior is or is not the simple aggregate of individual-level behaviors.

  • Develop unit-level models in which the organizational unit is a combined force. In combined and coalition forces, additional issues such as cultural clashes, language barriers, and technological differences combine to complicate the C3 process (Maurer, 1996). Thus the development of coalition organizational unit-level models requires attention to details not relevant for forces from a single country.

  • Examine interactions among different types of learning and the implications of such interactions for unit-level performance. Organizational unit-level learning is not simply the aggregation of individual learning. That is, it is possible for the organizational unit to learn and adapt even when all the individual agents are acting according to standard operating procedures. C3 architectures may learn or adapt by reassigning resources or tasks or by developing new procedures or information systems. The same basic standard operating procedures may apply for individual agents, but the number of agents or the time to



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