complete the task may differ. At the organizational unit level, adaptation may take the form of emergent structures rather than individual learning. However, learning at the unit level may interfere with or be aided by learning at the individual level. For example, unit-level learning in corporations is frequently embedded in the connections among personnel and the roles the personnel play, but the value of such learning is often negated when personnel are replaced or the organization downsizes. There is a need to assess whether this is the case in military settings and what impact such interference would have on unit-level performance.

  • In the course of developing models of planning, take unit-level issues into account.

  • Explore how the output of unit-level models is turned into plans such as those that might be generated by a commander or by staff personnel for a commander. Currently, the messages passed within many of the unit-level models have minimal content (e.g., they may contain implicit decisions and belief or trust in those decisions). Research is needed to link this output to messages whose content reflects C3 issues.



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