studies of the effects of fatigue on troop movement speeds and the gathering of quantitative data on the communication patterns within and across echelons in typical joint task force command and control exercises. Examples of laboratory work that has importance for real-world contexts are studies of the orientation of behavior to coordinated acoustic and visual stimuli and studies of the relationship between risk taking and information uncertainty. Between these extremes there is a need for data derived from high-fidelity simulations and war games and for data from laboratory analogs to military tasks. Examples of high-fidelity data of value to the modeler are communication logs and mission scenarios.

Chapter 12 emphasizes the need for detailed task analyses, but such analyses are not sufficient for the development of realistic human behavior representations. There is also a need for the kind of real-world military data that reflect, in context, the way military forces actually behave, are coordinated, and communicate. There are some good data on how fast soldiers can walk on various kinds of terrain and how fast tanks can move, but data are sparse on such things as the accuracy of localization of gun shots in the battlefield, the time it takes to communicate a message from one echelon to the next by various media, and the flexibility of different command and control structures.

These data are needed for a variety of purposes, as indicated in Figure 13.2: to support the development of measures of accreditation, to provide benchmark performance for comparison with model outputs in validation studies, to help set the parameters of the actual models of real-world tasks and test and evaluate the efficacy of those models, and to challenge existing theory and lead to new conceptions that will provide the grist for future models. It is not enough simply to advocate the collection of these data. There also must be procedures to ensure that the data are codified and made available in a form that can be utilized by all the relevant communities—from military staffs who need to have confidence in the models to those in the academic sphere who will develop the next generation of models. Some of these data, such as communication logs from old war games, already exist; however, they need to be categorized, indexed, and made generally available. Individual model and theory builders should be able to find out what data exist and obtain access to specific data on request.

Create Accreditation Procedures for Models of Human Behavior

The panel has observed very little quality control among the models that are used in military simulations today. Just as there is a need for accreditation of constructive models that are to be used in training and doctrine development, there is a need for accreditation of models of human and organizational behavior. DMSO should develop model accreditation procedures specifically for this purpose.

One component needed to support robust accreditation procedures is quantitative measures of human performance. In addition to supporting accreditation,



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