These large force constructive simulations, such as NSS, are used primarily for command and staff training. They are constructive two-sided simulations that have red team opposition force players and blue force staff and commander players.
The Air Force Air Combat Command has used airframe-specific flight simulators for decades in transition training and at the squadron and wing levels for sustainment training. The advent of virtual simulations that replicate system-specific performance functions with good fidelity offers the possibility of reduced training costs and increased levels of individual and unit proficiency. These simulations may allow the development of more highly refined coordination procedures and tactics that have not previously been possible in a peacetime environment.
An area of expanding growth in the number, size, and capability of models and simulations is Joint Chiefs of Staff and major theater command simulations. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Warfighting Center, located at Fort Monroe, Virginia, conducts joint staff training exercises for the unified commands around the world. These exercises operate with a number of joint and service simulations, some of which are described in the annex to this chapter. A consistent direction in the joint training area has been a growing need for DIS to allow the conduct of realistic joint training exercises with increased fidelity and significantly decreased costs. The synthetic theater of war (STOW) is an example of the blending of constructive and virtual simulations for joint and combined training. STOW-Europe was the first operational demonstration of the concept of linked constructive simulations, with Army ground force players at remote sites being linked to the Air Force Air Warrior Center. Incorporation of intelligent forces into STOW is discussed later in the chapter.
The thrust of simulations for research, development, and acquisition is to determine system capabilities and levels of performance that can be expected from new systems. Simulations are applied to address human engineering concerns, the design of systems and their interoperability with other services or multinational forces, and option prioritization and risk assessment decisions, as well as to examine survivability, vulnerability, reliability, and maintainability. All of the military services use simulations in their respective research, development, and acquisition processes; however, they do not have comparable organizations for the development of systems, and, therefore do not have a common set