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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Appendix Biographical Sketches RICHARD W. PEW (Chair) is principal scientist at BBN Technologies, a unit of GTE Internetworking, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He holds a bachelors degree in electrical engineering from Cornell University (1956), a master of arts degree in psychology from Harvard University (1960), and a Ph.D. in psychology with a specialization in engineering psychology from the University of Michigan (1963). He has 30 years of experience in human factors, human performance, and experimental psychology as they relate to systems design and development. Throughout his career he has been involved in the development and utilization of human performance models and in the conduct of experimental and field studies of human performance in applied settings. He spent 11 years on the faculty of the Psychology Department at Michigan, where he was involved in human performance teaching, research and consulting before moving to BBN in 1974. His current research interests include the impact of automation on human performance, human-computer interaction, and human performance modeling. Dr. Pew was the first chairman of the National Research Council Committee on Human Factors and has been president of the Human Factors Society and president of Division 21 of the American Psychological Association, the division concerned with engineering psychology. He has also been chairman of the Biosciences Panel of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Pew has authored more than 60 publications, including book chapters, articles, and technical reports. JEROME BUSEMEYER received his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina, 1979. He is a past president of the Society of Mathematical Psychology and
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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations is currently a member of the National Institute of Mental Health Perception and Cognition Review Committee. He is also a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Mathematical Psychology, the Psychological Bulletin, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. His research concerns dynamic, emotional, and cognitive models of judgment and decision making; neural network models of function learning, interpolation, and extrapolation; methodology for comparing and testing complex models of behavior; and measurement theory with error-contaminated data. KATHLEEN M. CARLEY is currently an associate professor of sociology and organizations at Carnegie Mellon University. She received an S.B. in political science and an S.B. in economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. Her current research is in the areas of organizational design and adaptation, computational organization theory, social and organizational networks, evolution of social networks, communication and technology, social theory, communication and diffusion of information, statistical and computational techniques for analyzing social networks and their evolution over time, and computer-assisted textual analysis techniques for coding mental models. Dr. Carley is a founding coeditor of the journal Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. TERRY CONNOLLY is professor of management and policy at the University of Arizona. He has taught at the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Illinois, and the University of Chicago since completing his Ph.D. at Northwestern University in organization behavior and systems theory. His undergraduate degree was in electrical engineering (Manchester) and his M.A. in sociology (Northwestern). His primary research interests are in judgment and decision making, and he has published widely on these topics. He serves on several editorial boards, including Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes , the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, and the Administrative Science Quarterly. Dr. Connolly is a fellow of the American Psychological Society and past president of the Judgment and Decision Making Society, and he serves on the Committee on Human Factors of the National Research Council. JOHN R. CORSON is a retired U.S. Army infantry colonel and currently president of JRC Research & Analysis L.L.C. He is a consultant to the U.S. Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command, where he has provided operational evaluation support for the Army's Advanced Warfighting Experiments and assessment of the Army Experimental Force for the Army of the 21st Century. He has over 30 years of experience in senior-level management, training and training development, operations research/systems analysis, and operational test and evaluation. His professional experience includes 2 years as chief operating officer of Integrated Visual Learning, a commercial joint venture company; 4 years
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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations as vice president/senior program manager for a professional technical support defense contractor corporation; and 2 years as deputy commander of the U.S. Army Operational Test and Evaluation Agency. He has a B.Sc. in industrial management from Drexel University (1961) and an MBA from The Ohio State University (1972). He previously served as a National Research Council panel member on the Panel on Human Factors in the Design of Tactical Display Systems for the Individual Soldier. KENNETH H. FUNK received a B.A. in biology from Taylor University in 1975 and an M.S. and Ph.D. in industrial and systems engineering from The Ohio State University in 1977 and 1980, respectively. He is currently with the Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department of Oregon State University, where he teaches courses in human factors engineering, industrial engineering, system safety, and artificial intelligence. His research interests include human factors engineering (especially aviation human factors), applied artificial intelligence, and social implications of technology. He is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the Association of Aviation Psychologists, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. BONNIE E. JOHN is an associate professor in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute and the Departments of Psychology and Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. She develops engineering models of human performance that aid in the design of computer systems. She also studies human computer interaction usability evaluation methods to understand their usefulness, effectiveness, learnability, and usability. She received a bachelor of engineering degree in mechanical engineering from The Cooper Union in 1977 and an MS in mechanical engineering from Stanford in 1978. She worked at Bell Laboratories from 1977 to 1983, designing data and telecommunications systems. After taking courses in human factors at Stevens Institute of Technology, she left Bell Labs to get a masters degree (1984) and Ph.D. (1988) in cognitive psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. She received a National Science Foundation Young Investigator Award in 1994 and is currently serving on the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors. JERRY S. KIDD is senior adviser for the Committee on Human Factors and its various projects. He received a Ph.D. from Northwestern University in social psychology in 1956; he then joined RAND Corporation to help on a project to simulate air defense operations. He left RAND in late 1956 to join the staff at the Laboratory of Aviation Psychology at Ohio State University. There he worked under Paul Fitts and George Briggs until 1962, when he joined the staff of AAI, Incorporated, north of Baltimore, maryland. In 1964, he moved to the National Science Foundation as program director for special projects. He joined the fac-
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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations ulty of the College of Library and Information Services at the University of Maryland in 1967 and retired in 1992. ANNE MAVOR is study director for the Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making, and director of the Committee on Human Factors and the Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance: Occupational Analysis. Her previous work as a National Research Council senior staff officer has included a study of human factors in air traffic control automation, a study of human factors considerations in tactical display for soldiers, a study of scientific and technological challenges of virtual reality, a study of emerging needs and opportunities for human factors research, a study of modeling cost and performance of military enlistment, a review of federally sponsored education research activities, and a study to evaluate performance appraisal for merit pay. For the past 25 years her work has concentrated on human factors, cognitive psychology, and information system design. Prior to joining the National Research Council she worked for the Essex Corporation, a human factors research firm, and served as a consultant to the College Board. She has an M.S. in experimental psychology from Purdue University. RICHARD M. SHIFFRIN, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is currently a professor of psychology, the Luther Dana Waterman Research Professor, and director of the Cognitive Science Program at Indiana University. He is an experimental psychologist who specializes in mathematical and computer simulation models of cognition. He is best known for his research and theories of short-term and long-term memory and of attention and automatism. Although his research lies primarily in basic processes of cognition, many of his Ph.D. students have gone on to work in applied research areas of human factors and information science and technology in academia, business, and the military. Dr. Shiffrin received a B.A. in mathematics from Yale University in 1964 and a Ph.D. in experimental and mathematical psychology from Stanford University in 1968, and has been on the faculty at Indiana University since 1968. GREG L. ZACHARIAS is principal scientist and director of research at Charles River Analytics Inc. Since cofounding the company in 1983, he has led efforts in developing behavioral representations of human information processing, situation awareness, and decision making in a variety of complex task environments, including piloted flight, nuclear power plant operations, and military decision making. As a senior scientist at Bolt Beranek and Newman from 1977 to 1983, Dr. Zacharias developed and applied models of visual and motion cueing for piloted flight control applications and was a codeveloper of a family of computational models currently used in evaluating multioperator performance in multi-task environments. Earlier, as a research engineer at the C.S. Draper Laboratory,
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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations he focused on pilot/vehicle interface design issues, building on a previous Air Force assignment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Spacecraft Center, where he was responsible for preliminary design definition of the space shuttle reentry flight control system. Dr. Zacharias obtained a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1977, is a research affiliate of the Man-Vehicle Laboratory at MIT, and is a member of the Committee on Human Factors of the National Research Council.
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