Index

A

AAACRU (analysis of aircraft artillery system procedures), 87

AASPEM (advanced air-to-air system performance evaluation model), 48-49

Accreditation of models, 2, 3-5, 74, 326-328, 330, 331, 332, 333-336

Accuracy of performance, 2-3, 53, 72, 74, 106, 259, 262, 263, 264

Acquisition simulation users, 11, 36-37

ACT-R (adaptive control of thought), 54-59, 64, 66, 97, 106, 107, 108, 109, 132, 133, 134, 138, 187, 265, 266

table of functionalities, 98-105

Adaptive Combat Model, 216, 218-219

Adaptive planning models, 151, 156, 160, 161-162, 163, 216

Advanced air-to-air system performance evaluation model, 35

Aggregation of behavior, 13, 299, 321

decision making, general, 150-151

see also Individual behavior;

Organizational behavior;

Team behavior;

Unit-level behavior

Aggressiveness, 49, 151, 162, 163, 170, 250, 263

Air Force, 37, 112

AASPEM, 48-49

CBS, 46-47

EADSIM, 46

IFOR, 42-43

MIDAS, 75-79, 97, 179-180

modeling requirements, 20

ModSAF, 40

MTWS, 48

situation awareness, 176-178, 191

Soar, 42-44, 50, 58, 66, 79, 90-96, 107, 108, 109, 132, 134, 137-138, 180-181, 193, 218-219, 222-225

STOW, 36, 50, 95

TACBRAWLER, 49

see also Flight simulators;

Helicopters

Air Force Air Warrior Center, 36, 50

Air Force Systems Command, 37

AMP (automated mission planner), 220-221, 227-228

Analysis simulation users, 11

Anger, 250

Annual Report of Army-After-Next, 12



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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Index A AAACRU (analysis of aircraft artillery system procedures), 87 AASPEM (advanced air-to-air system performance evaluation model), 48-49 Accreditation of models, 2, 3-5, 74, 326-328, 330, 331, 332, 333-336 Accuracy of performance, 2-3, 53, 72, 74, 106, 259, 262, 263, 264 Acquisition simulation users, 11, 36-37 ACT-R (adaptive control of thought), 54-59, 64, 66, 97, 106, 107, 108, 109, 132, 133, 134, 138, 187, 265, 266 table of functionalities, 98-105 Adaptive Combat Model, 216, 218-219 Adaptive planning models, 151, 156, 160, 161-162, 163, 216 Advanced air-to-air system performance evaluation model, 35 Aggregation of behavior, 13, 299, 321 decision making, general, 150-151 see also Individual behavior; Organizational behavior; Team behavior; Unit-level behavior Aggressiveness, 49, 151, 162, 163, 170, 250, 263 Air Force, 37, 112 AASPEM, 48-49 CBS, 46-47 EADSIM, 46 IFOR, 42-43 MIDAS, 75-79, 97, 179-180 modeling requirements, 20 ModSAF, 40 MTWS, 48 situation awareness, 176-178, 191 Soar, 42-44, 50, 58, 66, 79, 90-96, 107, 108, 109, 132, 134, 137-138, 180-181, 193, 218-219, 222-225 STOW, 36, 50, 95 TACBRAWLER, 49 see also Flight simulators; Helicopters Air Force Air Warrior Center, 36, 50 Air Force Systems Command, 37 AMP (automated mission planner), 220-221, 227-228 Analysis simulation users, 11 Anger, 250 Annual Report of Army-After-Next, 12

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Anxiety and fear, 163, 242, 243, 244, 250, 253, 255, 256, 265, 267 Architectures, general, 5, 18, 320-321, 322 attention, general, 118-119, 125-126 behavior moderators, 244, 248, 259-268 C3 factors, 270-300 decision making, general, 162-171 hybrid, 55, 108-110, 111, 149, 283, 298, 312 individual behavior, 2, 51-111 information diffusion, 306-310 learning, general, 135-148 methodology, general, 320-342 modular development, 338 multitasking, general, 120-127 planning, general, 212-241 unitary, 337-338 unit-level behavior, 270-300 see also specific architectures Army, 35, 37, 179 AWSIM, 46 CBS, 46-47 CCTT, 34, 35, 47 CSSTSS, 46-47 JANUS, 35 MIDAS, 75-79, 97, 179-180 ModSAF, 40 NAC-VPM, 195 NVESD/NVL, 194 Soar, 43, 218 STOW, 36, 49-50 stress variables, 243, 247, 248 tactical planning, 204-215, 228-229, 323 TRADOC, 37 VISEO, 195 WARSIM, 47 Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, 195 Army Concepts Analysis Agency, 37 Army Materiel Command, 37 Army Research Laboratory, 229 Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, 46 Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command Research, Development and Engineering Center, 195 ART (adaptive resonance theory), 80, 83, 140, 143-148 Artificial intelligence, 10, 15, 135, 136-148, 322 ACT-R, 138-139 C3 factors, 281, 284-285 emotions, 260-261 environmental representations, 236, 238 IFOR, 42 planning, 203, 208, 228-229, 232, 233, 234-238 Soar, 42-44, 50, 58, 66, 79, 90-96, 137-138 unit-level behavior, 274, 281, 284-285, 293-294 see also Neural networks Assessment, see Accreditation of models; Validation of models; Verification of models Attention, 2, 16, 18, 112-119, 120-121, 125-128, 172, 258 automatic processing and, 114, 115, 116, 123 decision making, general, 150, 161, 163 divided, 117-118 focused, 117 individual behavior architectures, 268 ACT-R, 55 COGNET, 59-60, 61 HOS, 67, 69, 70-71 neural networks, 146 MIDAS, 76, 78, 79 SAMPLE, 88, 89 learning, 113-115, 128 obsessiveness, 255 planning, 239 selective, 115, 117, 118-119 situation awareness, 174, 177 skill level, 114, 115, 116 see also Multitasking Attitudes, 130, 151, 155, 162, 163, 164, 167, 170, 244, 252, 255-256, 268 information diffusion/belief, 302, 308, 310-311, 312, 313-314, 316 see also Belief formation and diffusion Attrition, battlefield, 12, 243, 270

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Auditory perception, 42 individual behavior architectures, 53, 57, 76, 83, 87-88, 98 multitasking, general, 122, 123, 125 neural networks, 83, 143 noise, 243-248 (passim), 259, 268 selective attention, 117 situation awareness, 200 Automatic and controlled processing theory, 123 Automatic processing, learning, 130, 240 attention/multitasking, general, 114, 115, 116, 123 individual behavior architectures, 83, 84, 85, 92, 93 memory, general, 132 neural networks, 147 Avenues of approach, 22, 23, 24, 27-28, 216, 219 Awareness models, see Situation assessment/awareness AWSIM (air warfare simulation), 46 B Battalion task forces, 35, 212, 224, 225, 322 CBS, 47 CCTT, 47 JANUS, 45 vector-in-command, 46 WARSIM, 47 Bayesian methods, 101, 138, 165 belief networks, 181, 182-183, 186-192, 201, 264, 312-313 Behavior moderators, general, 2, 18, 67, 199, 202, 242-268 history of research, 243 training, 243, 244, 258, 259, 264 see also Psychological factors; Workload and fatigue Belief formation and diffusion, 18, 109, 244, 256, 296 belief networks, 181, 182-183, 186-192, 201, 264, 312-313 C3 factors, 286 communications technology, 315-316 decision theory, 150, 168 information diffusion, 302, 303, 306-307, 308-319 see also Uncertainty Benchmarks, 3, 5, 338-339 Blackboard systems, 60, 61, 76, 182, 201, 229, 238 Brigade-level behavior, 26, 212, 270 CASTFOREM, 45 CBS, 47 CCTT, 47 CoVRT, 216, 218-219 JANUS, 45 WARSIM, 47 BRS (battlefield reasoning system), 220-221, 228, 229-230 C C3, see Command, control and communications Calibration, 327-328 CAPS, 58 Case-based approaches, 185-186, 236, 320-321 behavior moderators, 263 decision making, general, 161-162 learning, 128, 139-141, 149 planning, 231-232, 233, 236-237 situation awareness, 182, 185-186, 191, 197, 202 see also Expert systems, Neural networks, Rule-based models CASTFOREM (combined arms task force effectiveness model), 45, 251 CBS (Corps Battle Simulation), 35, 46-47 C/C++ programming language, 62, 70, 72, 77, 90, 93-94 CCSIL (control simulation interface language), 44, 224, 225 CCTT (close combat tactical trainer), 34, 35, 47 CCTT SAF (CCTT semiautomated force), 38-40, 41 Center for Naval Analysis, 37 CFOR (command forces), 40, 43-44, 224, 225

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Chunking, 92, 93, 116, 137, 138, 197(n.1), 198, 202, 288 CLARION, 109 CMMS (conceptual model of the mission space), 297 Coalition forces, see International coalition forces COGNET (COGnition as a NEtwork of Tasks), 59-63, 71, 97, 106, 108 table of functionalities, 98-105 Cognitive processes, general, 9, 10, 14, 31, 324-326 as behavior moderators, 244 C3 factors, 271, 277 cultural factors, 25, 256-258 defined, 52-53 fatigue and, 246 individual combatant architectures, 53, 109, 137, 271, 272 ACT-R, 54-59, 265, 266 COGNET, 59, 63 EPIC, 58, 63-64, 65, 95, 107 HOS, 67, 69, 107 Micro Saint, 74 MIDAS, 76, 225-226 Neural networks, 79-84 OMAR, 85 Soar, 90-96, 226, 265, 266 MCSF, 41 multitasking, general, 120, 125, 128 obsessiveness, 255 situation awareness, 174, 176, 199 Soar, 42-44, 50, 58, 66, 79, 90-96, 109, 137 unit-level behavior, 271, 272, 277, 292, 299 workload, 150, 163, 170, 248-250, 259 see also Artificial intelligence; Attention; Decision making; Individual behavior; Knowledge representation; Learning; Memory; Neural networks; Planning; Reasoning abilities; Task analysis Command behavior, 1, 9, 12, 13, 33, 243, 265-268, 270, 297 AMP, 227-228 CBS (Corps Battle Simulation), 35 CCTT SAF, 41 CFOR, 43 cultural factors, 257-258 current models, 35, 41, 43, 48 table of functionalities, 39 decision making theory, 150, 153, 155, 157, 159, 161, 164, 230-231 DSD, 230-231 learning, general, 135, 136, 139 memory, general, 130 MTWS, 48 planning, general, 206, 208, 209, 212-213, 216-217, 230-231 platoon behavior, 21-33, 113, 114, 116, 265 situation assessment, 199, 267 structural factors, 12, 46, 48, 214, 224, 269, 276, 290, 297, 299 subordinates, relations, 206, 207-208, 213, 224, 230, 232, 233, 234, 240, 257, 270, 276 visual reasoning, 216-217 workload and fatigue, 250 see also Staff and staffing requirements Command, control and communications, 1, 11, 12, 16, 18, 20, 35, 269-300, 304, 318, 322 artificial intelligence, 281, 284-285 CASTFOREM, 45 CFOR, 43, 44 EADSIM, 46 enemy detection and assessment, 270, 271, 273, 283 environmental representations, 271, 296 individual behavior, 270, 271, 273-274, 289 ISAG, 228 Joint Chiefs of Staff, 36 JWARS, 50 knowledge representation, 274, 279, 282, 293 learning, 271, 273, 284, 285-287, 296, 299 MCSF, 41 Navy, 35-36 NSS, 48

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations personality factors, 253-254 planning, general, 214 platoon behavior, 21-33 rule-based models, 275, 278-279, 283 task analysis, 270, 272, 276, 277, 279-280, 282, 290-292, 294, 297 -300 team behavior, 270, 271, 272, 277 Communication processes, 14, 16 ModSAF, 40 MIDAS, 79 natural language, 94-95, 299, 319 OMAR, 84 planning, general, 207, 208 TACBRAWLER, 49 team behavior and, 1 technology, role of, 270, 306, 315-316, 318-319 types to be represented, 14 see also Auditory perception; Information dissemination Computer languages individual behavior architectures, 60, 104 C/C++, 62, 70, 72, 77, 90, 104, 108 CCSIL, 44, 224, 225 comparative table, 104 FORTRAN, 108 HyperCard, 57 JAVA, 86 Lisp, 57, 66, 77, 84-85, 86, 108 MATLAB, 82 unit-level behavior, SDML, 294-295 Computer platforms, 57, 58, 62, 66, 70, 73, 86, 94, 103, 108 Computer science, 5, 10, 16, 17, 33, 322 conferences on, 7, 340-341 current models, 38-50 decision making, general, 150, 151 expert systems, 183-184 fear of computers, 256-257 human cognitive process modeling, 14, 15 individual behavior architectures, support environments, 104 ACT-R, 57-58, 104 COGNET, 60-61, 62, 104 comparative table, 104 EPIC, 66, 104 HOS, 70, 104 Micro Saint, 73, 104 MIDAS, 78, 104 neural networks, 82-83, 104 OMAR, 84, 86, 104 SAMPLE, 90, 104 Soar, 94, 104 multitasking, general, 120, 127 planning, 216-241 situation awareness, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181-182, 191, 199 stress, 243 see also Architectures; Artificial intelligence; Expert systems; Models and simulations; specific computer models/simulations Constructive simulations, general, 11, 12, 34-38, 44-48, 73, 106 see specific constructive simulations Constructural modeling, 294, 306, 308-309 Contractors, general, 8, 10, 341 CFOR, integration of, 44 modeling requirements, 19 Control and estimation theory, 121-122, 193-194, 198, 262 Controversial information model, 306-308 CORP (Computational Organizational Performance), 274 Cost-effectiveness, 3, 4, 6, 334 constructive/virtual simulations linked, 35 decision making, general, 165, 169 hybrid models, 283 individual behavior architectures, ACT-R, 56, 57 Micro Saint, 74 Soar, 43 live simulations, 34 training, 35, 270 Cover and concealment, 24, 30, 31-32, 113 CoVRT (commander's visual reasoning tool), 216-217, 218-219 Crew behavior, see Team behavior CSIM (crew/system integration model), 87 CSSTSS (combat service support training support simulation), 46-47

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Cultural factors, 117, 242, 243, 244, 252, 256-258, 268, 308, 319 unit-level behavior, 276-277, 283, 299 D Decision making, 1, 2, 6, 11, 12, 13, 34, 148, 150-171, 196-197, 268 alternative courses of action, 27-29, 36 course-of-action phases, 204, 205-206, 210, 211, 214, 221, 227-228 defined, 150 depression, impact on, 255 expertise and, 251 fuzzy, 41, 139, 143, 223, 227, 262 individual behavior architectures, 52-53, 68, 93, 101, 107, 109, 150-151, 155-156, 162-163, 170, 318 information warfare, 318 joint and combined forces, 38 learning, general, 136, 167-168, 171 memory, general, 130 multitasking, general, 121, 122, 125, 128 neural networks, 83 NSS, 48, 226-227 obsessiveness, impact on, 255, 265 personality factors, 253 planning, tactical, 203-216, 221, 226-231 platoon-level, 20-33 probability, 154, 156-161, 162, 164, 170 risk assessment, 36, 151, 152-155, 158, 162, 163, 164, 166, 170, 253, 258, 267 temperature, effect on, 247 theory, 16-17, 121 unit-level behavior, 268-269, 298 see also Artificial intelligence; Command behavior; Doctrine; Errors, decision making; Multitasking; Planning; Situation assessment/awareness; Tactical behavior; Uncertainty Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 35, 37, 218 Defense Modeling and Simulation Office, 6, 9, 10, 16, 329-330, 339-342 C3 factors, 271, 276, 296 information exchange role, 8 interoperability policy, 5 MCSF, 41 methodology, general, 2-3, 321, 327 modeling requirements, 19 Department of Defense, 11 modeling requirements, 19 see also Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Depression, 255, 265, 267 Distributed interactive simulation, 9, 11, 12-13, 34, 38, 40, 293 neural networks, 79-84 Division-level behavior CBS, 47 CSSTSS, 47 Eagle, 46 JANUS, 45 DMSO, see Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Doctrine, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 37, 190, 203-213 (passim), 240, 258, 322, 325 current models, 33, 38, 39, 41, 45, 46, 48 Documentation, 4-5, 210, 322, 323-325, 335-336 DSD (decision support display), 230-231 Dynamic social impact theory, 309-310 E EADSIM (Extended Air Defense Simulation), 46 Eagle, 46 Echelon effects, 12, 32, 41, 169, 201, 204, 206, 207-208, 214, 232-233 Education and training, see Training, general Emotions, 162, 166-167, 242, 244, 252, 254-255, 260-261, 264, 266, 268 anger, 250 anxiety and fear, 163, 242, 243, 244, 250, 253, 255, 256 depression, 255, 265, 267 fatigue and, 246 information diffusion and, 310 neural networks, 83, 143 regret, 166-167 Emulation models, 275, 328

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Enemy detection and assessment, 1, 13, 38, 113, 282-284 AASPEM, 48 C3 factors, 270, 271, 273, 283 CBS, 47 emotions and, 261 expertise, 251-252 JANUS, 45 JWARS, 50 memory, general, 131 METT-T, 22, 198, 204-205, 265, 324 NSS, 48 obsessive leader, 266 planning, 205, 220-221, 227 platoon behavior, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26-27, 31-32, 205, 265-266 situation awareness, 174, 189, 191 SUTT, 42, 220-221 unit-level behavior, 269-270 see also Friendly forces; Target identification and handoff Environmental protection, 35, 245 Environmental representations, 6, 13, 121, 339 artificial intelligence, 236, 238 C3 factors, 271, 296 contextual effects, 215 decision making, general, 150, 169 exemplar-based models, 140 fields of fire, 23-24 individual behavior, COGNET, 60 EPIC, 65 MIDAS, 76 Soar, 109 modeling requirements, 20 neural networks, 141, 143 NSS, 48 obsessiveness and, 255 planning, general, 23-24, 205, 208, 212, 236, 238 situation awareness and, 173, 174, 192-193, 197 stressors, 242, 243, 245-248, 259 TAEMS, 295-296 unit-level behavior, 271, 289, 295, 296 urban areas, 42, 194, 207 see also Avenues of approach; Human-machine interaction; Spatial dimension; Terrain; Weather EPIC (executive-process interactive control), 58, 63-67, 95, 97, 108, 109, 126, 132 table of functionalities, 98-105 Errors, decision making, 114, 130, 134, 151, 152, 159, 163-171 C3 factors, 279 individual behavior architectures, 68, 74, 78, 79, 80, 91, 92, 142, 143-144, 259 information diffusion, 309, 311, 318 neural networks, 79, 80, 142, 143-144 Estimation theory, see Control and estimation theory Evaluation, see Accreditation of models; Research methodology; Research recommendations; Validation of models Exemplars, see Case-based approaches Expected utility models, 152-154, 163 Expected value models, 152 Experimental data, see Laboratory data Expertise, domain, 244, 251-252 learning, general, 130-131 multitasking, 127 planning, 235, 240 see also Skill level Expert judgment, 10, 17-18, 41, 322, 326 interdisciplinary teams, 5 model validation, 4 Expert systems, 136, 182, 183-184, 276, 283 CCTT SAF, 41 planning, 216, 228-231 situation awareness, 182, 183-184, 201, 202, 263 F Fatigue, see Workload and fatigue Fear, see Anxiety and fear Feedback, 15, 81, 135, 141, 158, 162, 238, 244, 250, 255, 278, 286, 298, 339 Fidelity, see Simulation fidelity

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Fields of fire, 23-24, 26, 31 Flight simulators, 36, 49, 57, 75-79, 84, 87-90, 93, 97, 124-125, 179-180, 191, 218-219, 222-226 FORTRAN, 108 Friendly forces, 13, 21, 26-27, 38, 48, 174, 205, 212, 243 Funding conferences, 7 research, 6, 9 see also Cost-effectiveness Fuzzy logic, 41, 139, 143, 223, 227, 262 FWA (fixed-wing aircraft)-Soar, 43, 44, 180, 181, 218-219, 222-224, 226 G Game theory, 155 Genetic algorithms, 287-288 Georgia Tech Vision Model, 195 GPS (general problem solver), 234-235 Ground forces MTWS, 48 STOW, 50 see also Infantry; Platoon behavior; Terrain Ground vehicles, 13, 20, 21-22, 38, 189-190 CCTT, 34, 47 CCTT SAF, 41 Micro Saint, 74 MIDAS, 75 ModSAF, 40 neural networks, 82 see also Tanks Group behavior, 19 C3 factors, 271 information dissemination, 303, 307 multitasking, 128 transactive memory, 314-315 see also Organizational behavior; Team behavior; Unit-level behavior H HARDMAN III, 73 Hearing, see Auditory perception Helicopters, 16, 26, 31, 32 CCTT, 34, 35, 47 CFOR, 44 IFOR, 42-43 MIDAS, 75-79, 97, 179-180, 225-226 table of functionalities, 98-105, 218-219 Soar, 42-43, 44, 95, 218 HOS (human operator simulator), 67-71, 73, 74, 97, 106, 107, 108 table of functionalities, 98-105 Human-machine interaction, 67-71, 73, 75-79, 84-96, 97, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 218-219, 225-226, 257 situation awareness, 179-180, 191 see also Flight simulators; Man-in-the-loop models HyperCard, 57 I IFOR (intelligent forces), 40, 42-43, 137, 218-219, 222-225, 275, 337 C3 factors, 272 IMPRINT, 71, 243, 259-260, 268 Individual behavior, 1, 9, 243-268 (passim), 299, 322, 339 automatic processing, 83, 84, 85, 92, 93 C3 factors, 270, 271, 273-274, 289 cognitive processes, general, 53-59, 74, 76, 79-84, 85, 90-96, 109, 137, 225-226, 265, 266, 271, 272 combat, 10, 13, 16-17, 18, 21, 33, 51-111 current models, 51-108, 218-219 table of functionalities, 39, 98-105 decision making, general, 52-53, 68, 93, 101, 107, 109, 150-151, 155-156, 162-163, 170, 318 environmental representations, 60, 65, 76, 109 hybrid models, 108-110, 111, 149 inference, 56, 61, 74, 78, 80, 81, 88, 110 information diffusion/belief, 304-310, 313, 315, 318 information processing theory, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 63

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations MCSF, 41 modeling requirements, 19-20, 33 ModSAF, 40 planning, 206, 241 probability, 56, 57, 61, 69, 71, 72, 88, 92, 105, 111 procedures, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 76, 77, 78, 84-92, 96-97, 106, 107, 109 rule-based models, 55, 56, 57, 61, 63, 64, 65, 76, 80, 81, 84, 85, 88, 93, 106, 108 statistical analyses of, 65, 80, 88 stress, 243 structural influences, 6, 56, 57, 64, 83, 85, 87, 92, 93 time factors, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 72, 74, 76, 85, 89, 92, 93, 98, 111 workload, 63, 71, 72, 74, 76, 265, 268 see also Attention; Attitudes; Behavior moderators; Decision making; Knowledge representation; Learning; Memory; Motor behavior; Multitasking; Perception; Planning; Psychological factors; Situation assessment/awareness; Stress; Workload and fatigue; subheadings beginning ''individual…"(passim) Individual difference variables, see Behavior moderators Infantry, 70, 189-190, 217, 220 anxiety, 244 modeling requirements, 20-33 SUTT, 42, 179, 220-222 Inference, 255 individual behavior architectures, 56, 61, 74, 78, 80, 81, 88, 110 learning, 138-140 situation awareness, 172-173, 181-188 (passim), 191 Information dissemination, 302, 304-319 time factors, 306, 307-308, 309 unit-level behavior, 274 see also Belief formation and diffusion Information exchange, professional, 2, 3, 7-8, 330-333, 340-341 CFOR, 43 interservice, 8 multitasking, general, 127 planning, general, 210, 214 see also Communication processes; Interoperability Information processing theory, 51-54, 64, 90, 143, 200, 267-268, 310, 311-312 attention, 118-119 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 63 multitasking, 123, 127 unit-level behavior, 274, 292-293, 294 workload and, 249, 250 Information warfare, 18, 128, 301-319 Innovation, 253, 306-307 Innovativeness, personal, 213, 253 Intellective models, 275 Intelligence, human, 20, 172, 242, 244, 250-251 see also Artificial intelligence Intelligence, military information, 21, 50, 201, 205, 208, 215, 216, 228, 229 information warfare, 301, 302, 303, 304, 319 Interdisciplinary teams, 5, 7, 274, 293, 318, 322, 338, 321, 322, 338 International coalition forces, 35, 38 International Simulation Advisory Group, 228-229 Interoperability, 5, 6, 11, 36, 38, 339 individual behavior architectures, 51 see also Joint/combined forces IPME (integrated performance modeling environment), 73 J JANUS, 35, 45 Japan, 256 JAVA, 86 JCATS (joint combat operations), 50 JCM (joint conflict model), 49

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Joint Chiefs of Staff, 36 Joint/combined forces, 11, 336 C3 factors, 271 current models, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 49-50 table of functionalities, 39 international, 35, 38 Joint Services JWARS, 35 JTLS (joint theater level simulation), 49 JWARS (joint warfare system), 35, 50 K Knowledge representation C3 factors, 274, 279, 282, 293 declarative vs procedural, defined 55 group memory and, 314-315 individual behavior architectures, 55, 106 ACT-R, 55, 56, 57, 100, 101, 106 COGNET, 60, 61, 100, 101 comparative table, 100, 101 EPIC, 64, 100, 101 HOS, 71, 100 Micro Saint, 74, 100, 101 MIDAS, 76, 100, 101 neural networks, 83-84, 100, 142 OMAR, 84, 100, 101, 106 SAMPLE, 88-89, 100, 101 Soar, 92, 93, 100, 101, 276 information diffusion, 308 memory, general, 131-132, 314-315 planning, general, 206, 213, 215(n.8), 232, 235 structural factors, 56, 57, 93, 94, 133 unit-level behavior, 274, 276, 279, 282, 293 see also Situation assessment/awareness L Laboratory data, 2, 3, 4, 299 NIH/NSF, 7 Leadership, see Command behavior Learning, 2, 6, 130, 135-149, 241 attention/multitasking, general, 113-115, 128 C3 factors, 271, 273, 284, 285-287, 296, 299 case-based, 128, 139-141, 149 chunking, 92, 93, 116, 137, 138, 197(n. 1), 198, 202, 288 decision making, general, 136, 167-168, 171 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53, 296, 299 ACT-R, 55, 56-57, 101, 106, 138-139 comparative table, 101 hybrid architectures, 109-110, 149 ModSAF, 40 neural networks, 80, 81, 101, 106, 109, 136, 141-147 OMAR, 84 Soar, 42, 91-92, 93, 95, 101, 106, 137-138 probability, 138-141, 148 rule-based models, 136, 137-139, 140, 142, 147, 148, 149 simulation, learning by, 135-148 situation awareness, 130-131, 185-186, 197-198, 202 unit-level, 271, 273, 284, 285-289, 296, 298, 299-300 see also Artificial intelligence; Training Lisp, 57, 66, 77, 84-85, 86 Live simulations, 33-34, 47, 341 see also War games Logistics, supply, see Support logistics M MACE, 293-294 Man-in-the-loop models, 4, 34, 46, 47, 54, 86, 87, 110, 109, 270, 273, 334 see Human-machine interaction Marine Computer-Generated Force (CGF), 217-219, 222 Marine Corps, 41, 42, 216, 218 CBS, 47 CGF, 217-219, 222 Eagle, 26 MCSF, 41 ModSAF, 40 MTWS, 48

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Soar, 43 SUTT, 42 Mathematical models, 45 belief formation, 310-312 C3 factors, 280 individual behavior architectures, 55, 81 learning, 140, 142 memory, general, 132 selective attention, 119 MATLAB, 82 MCSF (Marine Corps Synthetic Forces), 41 Memory, 2, 129-135, 136, 139, 148-149 attention/multitasking, general, 114-115, 122, 125, 128 decision making, general, 158 depression, 267 group/transactive, 314-315 knowledge representation and, 131-132, 314-315 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53, 97 ACT-R, 55, 56, 57, 58, 99, 132, 133, 134, 138 COGNET, 99 comparative table, 99 EPIC, 64, 99, 132 HOS, 99 MIDAS, 77-78, 99 neural networks, 81, 82, 83, 99, 133, 134, 142-147 (passim) OMAR, 99 Soar, 91, 92-93, 95, 99, 132, 134, 223-224 obsessiveness, impact on, 255 short- vs long-term defined, 129-130 situation awareness, 177, 185, 197 skill level, 129, 130 types of, 131-135 Methodology, see Research methodology METT-T (mission, enemy, troops, terrain, and time available), 22, 198, 204-205, 265, 324 Micro Saint, 66, 71-75, 97, 106, 107, 108, 244 table of functionalities, 98-105 MIDAS (man-machine integrated design and analysis system), 75-79, 97, 179-180, 225-226, 231 table of functionalities, 98-105, 218-219 Missile systems AASPEM, 48-49 EADSIM, 46 TACBRAWLER, 49 Mission planning and preparation, 11, 203 AASPEM, 48 JWARS, 50 MIDAS, 76, 77 NSS, 48 platoons, 20, 22-30, 265 rehearsal, 20, 29-30, 208, 265 situation awareness, 174 Soar/STOW models, 43 Models and simulations, general accreditation of, 2, 3-5 attention, general, 118-119, 125-126 behavior moderators, 244, 248, 259-268 belief formation, 310-215 benchmarks, 3, 5, 338-339 C3, 270-300 (passim) current, 19, 33-51; see specific types infra and supra tables of functionalities, 39, 98-105 decision making, general, 162-171 definitional issues, 10-14, 33-35 DMSO role, general, 8 framework for development of, 2-7, 330-340 individual behavior architectures, 51-111 information diffusion, 306-310 learning, general, 135-148 memory, general, 131-135 methodology, general, 320-342 military requirements, 19-38 multitasking, general, 120-127 planning, general, 212-241 platoon behavior, 20-33 unit-level behavior, 270-300 see also specific models and types of models (e.g., Multiagent models) Modified stage models, general, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 63, 64

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations ModSAF (modular semiautomatic forces), 40, 41, 74, 217, 219, 221, 227 Monte Carlo models, 44, 48, 49 Motor behavior, 10, 16, 259-260, 325 decision making, general, 150 individual behavior architectures, 52-53, 97, 106, 109, 111 ACT-R, 55, 57, 97, 99, 109 COGNET, 99, 106 comparative table, 99 EPIC, 65, 97, 99, 109 HOS, 68-69, 99, 106 Micro Saint, 97, 99, 106 MIDAS, 75-76, 78, 79, 99 neural networks, 80, 81, 83, 99, 144 OMAR, 85-86, 97-98, 99 SAMPLE, 87, 99 Soar, 91, 92, 95, 97, 106 memory, general, 131 multitasking, general, 120, 125, 128 situation awareness, 178, 194-195 speech production, 57, 59, 78, 125 MOUT (military operations in urban terrain), 42, 207 Movement, see Motor behavior; Spatial dimension MTWS (marine tactical warfare system), 48 Multiagent models, 318 planning, 221, 229 situation awareness, 181-182 unit-level behavior, 271, 274, 279, 288, 289, 292-295, 298 Multiattribute utility, 154-155 Multidisciplinary teams, see Interdisciplinary teams Multinational forces, see International coalition forces Multitasking, 2, 112-116, 119-128 automatism and, 114, 115, 116 divided attention, 117-118 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53, 107, 111, 268 ACT-R, 55, 102-103, 107, 109 COGNET, 59-63, 102-103 comparative table, 102-103 EPIC, 58, 63-67, 102-103, 109, 126 HOS, 67, 70, 102-103 Micro Saint, 71-75, 102-103 MIDAS, 76-77, 102-103 neural networks, 102-103, 125, 128 OMAR, 84, 102-103, 126 SAMPLE, 87-90, 102-103 Soar, 91, 94, 95, 102-103 motor behavior, 120, 125, 128 procedures, 114, 115, 123 psychological factors, 120, 122-125, 126-127 selective attention, 115, 117 situation awareness, 172 skill level, 122, 125 time factors, 120-121, 124, 125, 126 N NAC-VPM (National Automotive Center Visual Perception), 195 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 95, 179 National Institutes of Health, 7 National Science Foundation, 7 Natural language, 94-95, 299, 319 Naval Air Warfare Center, 42 Naval forces, 20, 35-36, 37, 228-229 ModSAF, 40 NSS, 35, 36, 44, 48, 220-221 Soar, 43 Naval Systems Command, 37 Networked virtual simulations see Distributed interactive simulations Network techniques, 34, 35, 72, 133, 216, 225, 253, 259, 321-325 (passim) belief networks, 181, 182-183, 186-192, 201, 264, 312-313 information diffusion/warfare, 301-306, 311-318 unit-level behavior, 271, 275, 278-281, 284, 296-298 see also COGNET; Micro Saint; Neural networks: OMAR Neural networks, 79-84, 109, 125, 128, 133, 134, 136, 141-147, 287 problem solving, 80, 83, 142, 288

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations table of functionalities, 98-105 time factors, 81-82, 83, 143 Night operations, 23, 30-31, 194-195 Noise auditory, 243-248 (passim), 259, 268 other, 87, 121, 137, 194, 196 Nonlinear techniques, 15, 80, 81, 141, 142, 153, 154, 235, 311 unit-level behavior, 271, 273, 277, 283 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 50 NSS (naval simulation system), 35, 36, 44, 48, 220-221, 226-227 NVESD (Night Vision and Electronic Sensor Directorate), 194-195 O Obsessiveness, 255, 265, 266, 267 Obstacles, 23, 24, 83, 229-230 OCOKA, 23-24, 26-27 OMAR (operation model architecture), 84-86, 97, 106, 108, 126 table of functionalities, 98-105, 107 Operating procedures, see Standard operating procedures OPFOR (opposing forces), see Enemy detection and assessment Optimization techniques, 59, 204, 211, 214, 219, 232, 233, 271, 281, 285, 288, 298, 299 ORGAHEAD, 296, 321 Organizational behavior, 1-2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 19, 275, 322, 325 CBS, 47 JANUS, 45 moderators, general, 2 platoons, 21 vector-in-command, 46 see also Command behavior; Command, control and communications; Group behavior; Information dissemination; Information warfare; Unit-level behavior P Pacific operations, 35-36 Pandemonium theory, 127 Pattern matching/recognition, 328, 333 behavior moderators, 244, 252, 253, 256 decision making, 168-169 individual behavior architectures, 55, 80, 81, 85 information dissemination, 304, 307, 309, 310 learning, 138-147 situation awareness, 173, 178, 180 unit-level behavior, 273, 281, 294-295 Perception, 2, 261-262, 267, 326 decision making, general, 150, 158, 230 estimation models, 193-194 individual combatant architectures, 52, 53, 109, 111 ACT-R, 57, 98, 109 COGNET, 60, 61, 63, 98 comparative table, 98 EPIC, 63-64, 98, 109 HOS, 68, 69, 98 MCSF, 41, 98 MIDAS, 75, 76, 98 OMAR, 85, 98 SAMPLE, 87, 98 Soar, 91, 92, 95, 98, 180-181 multitasking, general, 126, 127 neural networks, 141 planning, 230, 233-234 selective attention, 115 situation awareness, 173, 174, 192-194, 200, 201 see Auditory perception; Sensory behavior; Visual perception PERFECT (performance effectiveness for combat troops), 248 Performance, general, 2, 9, 36, 51, 63, 67, 86 accuracy, 2-3, 53, 72, 74, 106, 259, 262, 263, 264 data on, 3, 8 learning, general, 136 neural networks, 83 simulation metrics, 3, 70, 334

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations situation awareness, 202 speed, 2, 53, 92, 259, 262, 263, 264 vector-in-command, 46 stressors, 244, 248-250, 259-260 see also Speed of performance; Stress; Workload and fatigue Personality, 165, 244, 250, 252-254, 258, 260-261, 263, 264, 268 aggressiveness, 49, 151, 162, 163, 170, 250, 263 innovativeness, personal, 213, 253 see also Emotions Personnel selection, 63, 282 PERT charts, 280, 291, 294, 325 Petri nets, 280 Pilots, 16, 42-44, 49, 257, 265, 320, 323 attention/multitasking, 112, 120, 124, 125 individual behavior architectures, 54, 70, 79, 87, 95 planning, 218, 219, 224, 240 situation awareness, 179, 181, 191 see also Flight simulators Planning, 2, 18, 52-53, 101, 107, 203-241 adaptive planning models, 151, 156, 160, 161-162 artificial intelligence, 203, 208, 228-229, 232, 233, 234-238 C3 factors, 270, 284 case-based, 231-232, 233, 236-237 course-of-action phases, 204, 205-206, 210, 211, 214, 221, 227-228 defined, 204 knowledge representation and, 206, 213, 215(n.8), 232, 235 procedures, 212-213, 219, 225, 226, 235, 239 rule-based models, 217, 218-219, 221, 222-233 (passim), 240 situation awareness in, 173, 175, 198-199, 204, 210, 212, 215, 217, 230, 233-234 skill level, 233, 241 specific models, 216-240 staff-level, 204, 207, 209, 210, 212, 214-217, 219, 230 structural factors, 214, 222, 226, 235 time factors, 206, 207, 208, 211, 212, 214-215, 224, 226, 235-236, 267 uncertainty, 214, 215, 236, 239 see also Intelligence, military information; Mission planning and preparation; Strategy; Tactical behavior Platoon behavior, 20-33, 265 attention/multiasking, 113, 114, 116 CCTT SAF, 41, 47 enemy detection and assessment, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26-27, 31-32, 205, 265-266 MCSF, 41 ModSAF, 40 planning, 20, 22-30, 204-205, 207 SUTT, 42 Political processes, 15, 299 Power distance, 257 Prediction C3 factors, 271 decision making, general, 158 force effectiveness, 37 individual behavior architectures, COGNET, 62 EPIC, 63 HOS, 68 neural networks, 80 learning, exemplar-based models, 139 model analysis, general, 4, 335 neural networks, 142 situation awareness, 173, 178, 188 war outcomes, 12 see also Planning Probability, 42, 45, 112, 121, 239, 242, 256, 264 decision making, general, 154, 156-161, 162, 164, 170 individual behavior architectures, 56, 57, 61, 69, 71, 72, 88, 92, 105, 111 learning, 138-141, 148 situation awareness, 186-192, 194, 197-198 unit-level behavior, 284, 288 see also Bayesian methods; Stochastic processes

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Problem solving, 96, 288 ACT-R, 55, 58-59, 98, 138 CFOR, 44 COGNET, 60 MIDAS, 76 neural networks, 80, 83, 142, 288 situation awareness, 176, 178, 197 Soar, 42, 44, 91, 92, 95, 137 team, 176 see also Case-based models Procedures, 38, 45, 46, 168, 323, 324-326, 339 accreditation/validation of models, 3, 4-5, 328, 330, 333-336 attention/multitasking, general, 114 behavior moderators, 244, 257 coupling, 242-243 flight simulators, 36 individual behavior architectures, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 76, 77, 78, 84-92, 96-97, 106, 107, 109 joint service tasks, 35 memory/learning, general, 130-131, 136, 137, 139 multitasking, 114, 115, 123 planning, 212-213, 219, 225, 226, 235, 239 situation awareness, 179, 183, 193 unit-level behavior, 16, 24, 269, 270, 272, 273, 278, 279, 285, 286, 289, 296-300, 321, 322 see also Standard operating procedures PROCRU (procedure oriented crew), 87 Protective clothing (Equipment), 245, 246, 247, 259, 260 Psychological factors, 2, 5, 14-15, 16, 17, 51, 244, 322 individual behavior architectures, 111 COGNET, 63 EPIC, 65, 66, 67 Micro Saint, 74 MIDAS, 79 OMAR, 86 Soar, 91 multitasking, general, 120, 122-125, 126-127 obsessiveness, 255, 265-266, 267 see Cognitive processes; Cultural factors; Emotions; Personality; Stress Q Quality control, 3, 17 see also Accreditation of models; Cost-effectiveness; Validation of models Queuing theory, 120-121, 122 R Random utility models, 156-158, 160, 163, 170 Rank-dependent utility, 154, 163 Reactive behavior, 21, 53, 85, 109 Real-time data/processes, 12-13 C3, 287 EPIC, 65 Micro Saint, 74 NSS, 48 OMAR, 86 Soar, 91, 94, 95 see also Virtual simulations Real-world data, 2, 3, 13, 95, 322, 327-328, 333, 339 C3 factors, 297 learning/memory, 149 planning, 217 workload and fatigue, 248 Regret, 166-167 REM (retrieving effectively from memory), 133 Research methodology, 15, 18, 320-328 accreditation, 2, 3-5, 326-328, 330, 331, 332, 333-336 framework for model development, 2-7, 330-340 NIH/NSF, 7 report methodology and scope, ix, 10, 17 task analysis, 322, 323, 324-326, 331, 333, 336, 341 see specific methodologies (e.g., Statistical analyses)

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations Research recommendations, 2, 6, 9-10, 329-342 behavior moderators, 268 C3, 287, 296-300, 318 decision making, 168-171 framework for model development, 2-7, 330-340 individual behavior architectures, 109-111, 335, 336, 337, 339 information diffusion/belief, 316-319 information exchange, 2, 7-8, 340-341 learning/memory, 148-149 multitasking, 127-128 planning, 240-241 situation awareness, 173, 199-202 unit-level behavior, 6, 7, 287, 296-300, 335, 336, 337, 339 Reasoning abilities, 248, 264, 270, 315 BRS, 220-221, 228, 229-230 case-based, 185, 197, 202, 232, 262, 263 individual behavior architectures, 76, 78, 81, 83, 95, 109 planning, 208, 216, 235, 237 situation awareness, 178, 181, 182, 183, 187, 188, 199, 201 Resource effects, 122-123, 124, 128, 135, 214-215, 235-236, 267, 284 C3 factors, 270, 279, 280, 299 planning, general, 206, 208 situation awareness, 174 see also Attrition, battlefield Resource theories and models, 122-123, 124 Response delays, 53 Risk assessment, decision making, 36, 151, 152-155, 158, 162, 163, 164, 166, 170, 253, 258, 267 see also Situation assessment/awareness Rotorcraft, see Helicopters Rule-based models, 16, 24, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 128, 134, 241, 262, 263, 323, 326 C3 factors, 275, 278-279, 283 individual behavior architectures, 55, 56, 57, 61, 63, 64, 65, 76, 80, 81, 84, 85, 88, 93, 106, 108 learning, 136, 137-139, 140, 142, 147, 148, 149, see also Case-based approaches; Neural networks perception, 262 planning, 217, 218-219, 221, 222-233 (passim), 240 situation awareness, 178, 193, 196-197, 201 unit-level behavior, 272, 273, 275, 277-279, 283-284, 289 see also Expert systems RWA (rotary wing aircraft)-Soar, 43, 44, 218-219, 224-225 S SAINT (systems analysis of integrated networks of tasks), 71 SAM (search of associative memory), 133 SAMPLE (situation awareness model for pilot-in-the-loop evaluation), 87-90 Schema-based techniques, 55, 106, 109, 126 SCORE, 85 SDML (strictly declarative modeling language), 294-295 Sensory behavior, 10, 97, 325 decision making, general, 158 detection/identification of enemy/friendly forces, 13 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53 ACT-R, 55, 98 comparative table, 98 EPIC, 64, 98 ModSAF, 40, 98 neural networks, 83, 98, 144 OMAR, 84, 98 SAMPLE, 87, 98 selective attention and, 118 situation awareness and, 178, 182, 193, 201 toxins, effect on, 246 see also Auditory perception; Visual perception Sequential sampling models, 156, 158-162, 163, 170

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations SIMNET (simulation network), 35 see also CCTT Simulated annealers, 148, 287, 288 Simulation fidelity, 18, 334 decision making, general, 168 specific models, 36, 44, 45, 47 Simulations, see Models and simulations, general Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command, 10 Situation assessment/awareness, 2, 6, 13, 18, 53, 101, 106-107, 172 -202, 263-265 case-based approaches, 182, 185-186, 191, 197, 202 CCTT SAF, 41 cognitive processes, general, 174, 176, 199 defined, 172-175 environmental representation and, 173, 174, 192-193, 197 expert systems, 182, 183-184, 201, 202, 263 individual behavior architectures, 52, 53, 62, 76, 78, 87-90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 106-107, 109 inference and, 172-173, 181-188 (passim), 191 intelligence, military information, 21, 50, 201 JWARS, 50 learning, general, 130-131, 185-186, 197-198, 202 MCSF, 41 memory, 177, 185, 197 MIDAS, 76, 79, 101 ModSAF, 40 motor behavior, 178, 194-195 multiagent models, 181-182 other modes, relation to, 192-199 pattern recognition, 173, 178, 180 perception, general, 173, 174, 192-194, 200, 201 planning, general, 173, 175, 198-199, 204, 209, 210, 212, 214, 215, 217, 230, 233-234 platoon leaders, 23-27, 32 prediction, general, 173, 178, 188 probability, 186-192, 194, 197-198 problem solving, 176, 178, 197 procedures, 179, 183, 193 reasoning abilities, 178, 181, 182, 183, 187, 188, 199, 201 research recommendations, 173, 199-202 rule-based models, 178, 193, 196-197, 201 SAMPLE, 88, 101 sensory behavior, 178, 182, 193, 201 auditory perception, 200 visual perception, 181, 194-196, 200 spatial dimension, 174, 195-196 staff-level, 198, 199 statistical analyses, 198, 202 structural factors, 185, 192, 197, 199, 202 SUTT, 42, 179 tactical behavior, 173, 175, 182, 185, 191, 197, 201 team behavior, 174, 176, 202 uncertainty, 175, 178, 181, 186, 187, 192, 199, 201 validation of models, 191, 201-202 types of, 177-181 Skill level, general, 48, 84, 136, 138, 139, 168, 242, 262, 263, 264, 323 attention, 114, 115, 116 memory, 129, 130 multitasking, 122, 125 planning, 233, 241 unit-level behavior, 279, 280, 282, 294, 298 see also Expertise, domain; specific skills Sleep loss, 248, 259, 268 Soar, 42-44, 50, 58, 66, 79, 90-96, 107, 108, 109, 132, 134, 137-138, 180-181, 193, 222-225, 231, 265, 266, 275, 276, 294-295, 299, 337 C3 factors, 272, 276, 294-295, 299 table of functionalities, 98-105, 218-219 Sociological factors, 2, 5, 9, 15, 16, 17, 289, 291, 293-294, 322 see also Belief formation and diffusion; Cultural factors; Information warfare; Organizational behavior

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations SOLE (systems operator loading evaluation), 71 Span of attention, see Attention Spatial dimension battlefield movement, 12, 13, 20, 22, 30-33, 271, 333 information diffusion, 309-310 ModSAF, 40 multitasking, general, 123 situation awareness, 174, 195-196 see also Terrain Speech production, 57, 59, 78, 125 Speed of performance, 2, 53, 92, 259, 262, 263, 264 Staff and staffing requirements, 11, 27, 37, 45, 47, 48, 78, 188, 189, 333, 334 decision making, 151 information diffusion, 301, 302 planning, 204, 207, 209, 210, 212, 214-217, 219, 230 situation awareness, 198, 199 training, 36, 46, 49 unit-level behavior, 270, 277, 300 Staff Organization and Operation (FM 101-5), 204, 209 STAMIS (standard Army management information system), 47 Standard operating procedures, 2, 219, 225 behavior moderators, 242-243 flight simulation, 87 joint/combined forces, 38 unit-level behavior, 272, 296, 299-300 see also Doctrine Standards decision making models, 169 military language, decision making, 166, 169 see Accreditation of models; Doctrine; Quality control; Validation of models Statistical analyses accreditation/validation, 3, 327-328, 334 battle outcomes, 11 belief updating, 109 C3 architectures, 271, 280-281 cultural factors, 283 decision models, 158 environmental variables, 65 individual behavior architectures, 65, 80, 88 memory/learning, 134, 141, 145 neural networks, 80, 134, 141 situation awareness, 198, 202 see also Bayesian methods; Probability Stochastic processes, 4, 34, 45, 46, 69, 71, 156, 158, 196, 237 STOW (synthetic theater of war), 36, 40, 43, 49-50, 95, 180, 275, 297 C3 factors, 272 Strategic Workload Management Theories, 124 Strategy, 33, 64, 83, 125, 130, 189, 191, 193, 215, 238, 239, 303, 317, 323 behavior moderators, 243, 244, 250, 256, 258 decision making, general, 150, 155, 161 learning, 135, 136, 298 unit-level behavior, 270, 280, 288, 289, 298 Stress, 2, 21, 32, 124, 150, 163, 170, 171, 199, 202, 241, 242, 243, 247-250, 263, 265 C3 factors, 270 external vs internal, 244 vibration, 247 see also Anxiety and fear; Noise; Weather; Workload and fatigue STRICOM (simulation, training, and instrumentation command), 41 Structural factors, 6, 17 behavior moderators, 242, 258 command, 12, 46, 48, 214, 224, 269, 276, 290, 297, 299 environmental, 56 expectation, 126 force-level, 12, 37, 49 individual behavior, 6, 56, 57, 64, 83, 85, 87, 92, 93 information warfare, 301-319 knowledge, 56, 57, 93, 94, 133 memory/learning, 129-131, 133, 134 planning, 214, 222, 226, 235 situation awareness, 185, 192, 197, 199, 202

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations task, 6, 123, 126, 304, 326, 336 theory, 15, 17, 64 unit-level behavior, 6, 16, 269, 272, 275-279 (passim), 282, 283, 292, 293, 300, 302, 325 validation of models, 326-327 see also Command, control and communications Submarines, 62-63, 228 Support logistics, 26, 46, 47, 49, 208 SUTT (small unit tactical trainer), 42, 179, 220-222 SWARM, 295 T TACBRAWLER (tactical air combat simulator), 49 TACSIM (tactical simulation model), 46-47 Tactical behavior, 11, 33, 34, 36, 166, 204-215, 228-229, 323 AASPEM, 48 ACT-R, 59 CASTFOREM, 45 CCTT, 34, 35, 47 CCTT SAF, 38-40, 41 expertise, 251-252 JANUS, 45 JCATS, 50 MCSF, 41 ModSAF, 40 MTWS, 48 neural networks, 83 NSS, 48, 226-227 planning, 203-241, 323 situation awareness, 173, 175, 182, 185, 191, 197, 201 Soar, 222-226 SUTT, 42, 179, 220-222 TACBRAWLER, 49 TACSIM, 46-47 theory, 212-213 unit-behavior, 20-21 see also CCTT; CCTT SAF; Doctrine The Tactical Decision making Process (ST 100-9), 204, 208 TADMUS, 182 TAEMS (task analysis, environment modeling, and simulation), 295-296 Tanks, 20-33, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 121, 130, 190, 204-205, 207 CCTT, 34, 35, 47 Micro Saint, 74 TARDEC Visual Model, 195-196 Target identification and handoff, 21, 26, 84, 117, 143, 157 see also Enemy detection and assessment Task analysis, 5, 51, 169 C3 factors and270, 272, 276, 277, 279-280, 282, 290-292, 294, 297-300 DMSO role, 8 IMPRINT, 71, 243, 259-260, 268 individual behavior architectures, 109, 324 ACT-R, 55 COGNET, 59-63 HOS, 67, 70 Micro Saint, 71-75 MIDAS, 76-78, 226 OMAR, 84, 85 PERFECT, 248 methodology, general, 322, 323, 324-326, 331, 333, 336, 341 ModSAF, 40 situation awareness, 174 Soar, 42-44, 93, 94, 223, 225, 226 structural factors, 6, 123, 126, 304, 326, 336 SUTT, 42 TAEMS, 295-296 team behavior, 243 unit-level behavior, 243, 270, 272, 276, 277, 279-280, 282, 289-292, 294, 295-296, 299-300, 322, 324 see also Multitasking TAWL (task analysis work load), 71 Team behavior, 1, 112, 212, 322 C3 factors, 270, 271, 272, 277 CASTFOREM, 45 communications, 14 JANUS, 45 modeling requirements, 19-20, 33

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations OMAR, 84 SAMPLE, 87, 98 situation awareness, 174, 176, 202 Soar, 95 task allocation, 243 toxins, exposure to, 247 see also Unit-level behavior Temperature, see Weather Terrain, 198, 216, 217, 221, 227, 228, 229 METT-T, 22, 198, 204-205, 265, 324 MIDAS, 75 obstacles, 23, 24, 83, 229-230 platoon behavior, 22, 23, 24, 30, 265 see also Avenues of approach Theater-level behavior, 35-36, 46, 47, 49, 91, 94 STOW, 36, 40, 43, 49-50, 95, 180, 272, 275, 297 Theoretical issues, 1-2, 3, 10, 14-18 (passim), 340 activation-based processing, 55, 57 attention/multitasking, general, 115, 118-119, 126 behavior moderators, 245-250 decision theory, 150-169, 230-231 exemplar-based models, 140 framework for research, 6-7, 330, 331, 340 multitasking, 63, 64, 70, 77, 120-125, 126-127 neural networks, 81, 83, 141-147 queuing theory, 120-121, 122 resource theories, 122-123, 124 structural theory, 15, 17, 64 tactical planning, 212-213 unit-level behavior, 271-275 weak task concurrence, 59 see also Doctrine; Information processing theory Time factors, 243, 245, 267, 296, 299-300, 326, 334 action/outcome delay, 250 decision making, general, 150, 159-160, 161, 167, 168, 171, 326 individual behavior architectures, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 72, 74, 76, 85, 89, 92, 93, 98, 111 information diffusion, 306, 307-308, 309 learning, general, 136 METT-T, 22, 198, 204-205, 265, 324 mission rehearsal, 29-30 models defined, 11, 33 multitasking, general, 120-121, 124, 125, 126 neural networks, 81-82, 83, 143 planning, general, 206, 207, 208, 211, 212, 214-215, 224, 226, 235-236, 267 platoon behavior, 22-23, 29-30, 31, 206, 265 response delays, 53 situation awareness, 172 training/rotation lag, 33-34 see also Real-time data/processes; Speed of performance Toxins, exposure to, 242, 244, 245-247 TRADOC (Army Training and Doctrine Command), 37, 40, 45, 46, 47 Training, general of modeling professionals, 7-8, 341 individual combatant architectures, 58, 82, 86, 94 of personnel, 1, 2, 11, 12, 32, 33, 35-36, 37, 42, 45, 46-48, 59, 63, 81, 283, 289, 334 automatism and, 116 behavior moderators, 243, 244, 258, 259, 264 decision making, general, 165 gaming prevention, 20 joint services, 11, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 49-50 memory, general, 130 mismatched, 282 mission rehearsal, 20, 29-30, 208, 265 situation awareness, 176-177 staff-level, 36, 46, 49 see also Learning; Skill level; War games TTES (computer-controlled hostilities for team target engagement simulator), 218-219

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations U Uncertainty, 11, 137, 141, 151, 168, 251, 257, 277, 318, 333 planning, 214, 215, 236, 239 situation awareness, 175, 178, 181, 186, 187, 192, 199, 201 Unconventional warfare, 50 Unit-level behavior, 1, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 35, 218, 269-300, 313-314, 321, 322, 339 artificial intelligence, 274, 281, 284-285, 293-294 battlefield movement, 12, 13 C3 factors, 270-300 (passim), 322 CASTFOREM, 45 CCTT SAF, 41, 47 decision making, general, 151 distributed simulation defined, 11 hasty defense, 20-21 JANUS, 45 knowledge representation and, 274, 276, 279, 282, 293 learning, 271, 273, 284, 285-289, 296, 298, 299-300 modeling requirements, 19-33 multiagent models, 271, 274, 279, 288, 289, 292-295, 298 NSS, 48 platoon behavior, 20-33 probability, 284, 288 procedures, 16, 24, 269, 270, 272, 273, 278, 279, 285, 286, 289, 296-300, 321, 322 research recommendations, 6, 7, 287, 296-300, 335, 336, 337, 339 rule-based models, 272, 273, 275, 277-279, 283-284, 289 skill level, 279, 280, 282, 294, 298 staff-level and, 270, 277, 300 stress, 243 structural factors, 6, 16, 269, 272, 275-279 (passim), 282, 283, 292, 293, 300, 302, 325 SUTT, 42 task analysis, 243, 270, 272, 276, 277, 279-280, 282, 289-292, 294, 295-296, 299-300, 322, 324, 325 see also Platoon behavior; Team behavior Urban areas, 42, 194, 207, 219 Utility theory, 152-162, 163, 196-197 V Validation of models, 4, 8, 10, 17, 326-328 C3 factors, 297 individual behavior architectures, 108, 110, 111 ACT-R, 58, 105 COGNET, 62, 63, 105 comparative table, 105 EPIC, 66, 67, 105 HOS, 67, 70, 105, 108 Micro Saint, 73-74, 105, 108 MIDAS, 78-79, 105 neural networks, 83, 105 OMAR, 86, 105 SAMPLE, 90, 105 Soar, 94-95, 105 information diffusion, 317, 318-319 learning/memory, 149 methodology, general, 320, 322, 326-328, 334-335, 341 multitasking, general, 127, 128 planning, general, 216-217 situation awareness, 191, 201-202 unit-level behavior, 297, 298 VDT (virtual design team), 279-280, 291, 292, 294, 316, 321 Vector-in-command, 46, 265 Verification of models, 4, 10, 74, 326, 327, 334 Vibration, as stressor, 247 VIEWNET, 143 Virtual simulations, general, 37-38, 40, 47, 74-75, 106 constructive simulations linked with, 35, 36, 40, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 73, 74, 75, 86

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Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations defined, 34 see also Distributed interactive simulation; specific virtual simulation models VISEO (visual electro-optical), 195 Visual perception, 13, 42, 53 C3 factors, 297 commander reasoning, 216-217 decision making, general, 165 divided attention, 117 expertise and, 251 fatigue and, 248 individual behavior architectures, ACT-R, 55, 57, 98 EPIC, 65, 98 HOS, 69, 98 Micro Saint, 73 MIDAS, 75-76, 98 neural networks, 81, 83, 98, 125, 143 PERFECT, 248 SAMPLE, 87, 98 Soar, 95, 98, 181 information dissemination, 317-318 intervisibility, 31 JANUS, 45 memory/learning, general, 130, 132 multitasking, general, 117, 120, 122, 123, 125 neural networks, 81 night vision, 23, 30, 194-195 selective attention, 117 situation awareness, 181, 194-196, 200 stressors, 246, 248, 259 SUTT, 42 TACBRAWLER, 49 toxins, effect on, 246 W War games, 2, 3, 9, 12-13, 18, 205, 211, 229, 243 C3 factors, 297 current models, 44-45, 49 WARSIM (War Simulation) 2000, 47 Weapons systems, 11, 12, 27, 37, 44, 46 AAACRU, 87 CASTFOREM, 45 CBS, 47 CCTT SAF, 41 EADSIM, 46 JANUS, 45 learning, general, 135 NSS, 48 STOW, 50 utility theory, 155 vector-in-command, 46 see also specific systems (e.g., Missile systems; Tanks) Weather, 23, 24, 242-247 (passim), 259, 268, 284 Workload and fatigue, 2, 123, 124, 172, 242, 243, 244-250, 259, 333 C3 factors, 279 decision making, general, 150, 163, 170, 248 individual behavior architectures, 63, 71, 72, 74, 76, 265, 268 physical, 244, 245, 246, 248 planning, 224 platoon behavior, 21, 22, 32 sleep loss, 248, 259, 268 temperature and, 245, 247 see also Multitasking