FIGURE 3.1 Modified stage model. NOTE: Tasks shown are derived from the vignette presented in Chapter 2.

behaviors are ultimately manifested in observable behaviors that must be simulated with varying degrees of realism, depending on actual applications; aspects of this realism include response delays, speed/accuracy tradeoffs, and anthropometric considerations, to name but a few.

Each of the architectures reviewed incorporates these components to some extent. What is common to the architectures is not only their inclusion of submodels of human behavior (sensing, perception, cognition, and so on), but also the integration of the submodels into a large and coherent framework. It would be possible to bring a set of specific submodels of human behavior together in an ad hoc manner, with little thought to how they interact and the emergent properties that result. But such a model would not be an integrative architecture. On the contrary, each of these integrative architectures in some way



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