the simulation engine, has gone through the Army verification, validation, and accreditation process—one of the few human behavior representations to do so.

Applicability for Military Simulations

Micro Saint has been widely employed in constructive simulations used for analysis to help increase military system effectiveness and reduce operations and support costs through consideration of personnel early in the system design process. Examples include models to determine the effects of nuclear, biological, and chemical agents on crews in M1 tanks, M2 and M3 fighting vehicles, M109 155-millimeter self-propelled howitzers, and AH64 attack helicopters. Micro Saint models have also been developed for the analysis of command and control message traffic, M1A1 tank maintenance, and DDG 51 (Navy destroyer) harbor entry operations.

Although Micro Saint has not yet been used directly for training and other real-time (virtual) simulations, Micro Saint models have been used to derive tables for human performance decrements in time and accuracy. Those tables have been used in real-time ModSAF simulations.

Micro Saint models of human behavior are capable of computing task times and task accuracies, the latter providing a means for explicitly modeling human error—a feature lacking in many models. The models can also be readily configured to compute operator workload as a basis for modeling multitasking. Used in conjunction with HOS V micro-models, Micro Saint has the capability to represent rather detailed human behaviors, at least for simple tasks. As noted, it is a commercial product, which offers the advantage of vendor support, and its software support environment provides tools for rapid construction and testing of models.

On the other hand, since Micro Saint is a tool, not a model, the user is responsible for providing the behavioral modeling details. Also, in the absence of HOS V micro-models, Micro Saint is most suited for higher levels of abstraction (lower model resolution). Being a tool and lacking model substance, Micro Saint also lacks psychological validity, which the user must therefore be responsible for providing. Knowledge representation is rudimentary, and, other than a basic branching capability, there is no built-in inferencing mechanism with which to develop detailed models of complex human cognitive processes; such features must be built from scratch.

Nevertheless, Micro Saint has already shown merit through at least limited validation and accreditation and has further potential as a good tool for building models of human behavior in constructive simulations. Being a commercial product, it is general purpose and ready for use on a wide variety of computer platforms. It also has been used and has good potential for producing human performance tables and other modules that could be used in virtual simulations. With the micro-model extensions of HOS V and a mechanism for converting



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