Several of the presentations and much of the open discussion focused on the new challenges facing nations and research organizations in this changing environment. These challenges were mentioned by several participants:

__ reconciling the imperative for increased collaboration with the differing time horizons and goals of partner organizations;

__ defining a government role that advances the interests of domestic constituencies while recognizing the global nature of markets and technology development.

Several presentations highlighted the trend of growing international collaboration in science and technology at the private sector level. Other participants asserted that additional work will be needed to learn from positive examples and fulfill the potential for global cooperation in advancing fundamental knowledge. Individual participants suggested a range of possible next steps, including:

__ developing a common view of fundamental research as a global good, and organizing mechanisms to ensure adequate support;

__ building institutions at the national and international levels that can effectively develop and implement new collaborative initiatives;

__ establishing mechanisms for sharing experience and perspective internationally on issues of common concern, such as appropriate evaluation techniques and ways to improve communication between scientists, engineers, and political leaders.

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