for superior ideas and people. This is becoming more important as more countries develop the critical mass of science and technology capability necessary to do outstanding research.

Factors Specific to Organizations

In addition to these general features of "effective practice," other elements of superior performance depend on the type of organization. Figure 3-1 shows the roles and interaction of universities and companies, a critical interface.

In universities, the key task is to push back the frontiers of fundamental knowledge and train the next generation of scientific and engineering talent. Publication is a critical factor in communicating and evaluating university research, particularly

Figure 3-1

The critical interface of universities and industry.

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