Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program

Air Force Science and Technology Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Air Force Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of effort sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under grant number F49620-97-1-0281. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research or the U.S. Government. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98–86220 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06142-3 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE AIR FORCE HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM A.RICHARD SEEBASS, chair, University of Colorado, Boulder JOHN J.BERTIN, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado LANA M.COUCH, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley, Virginia WILLIAM H.HEISER, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado JOHN E.JAQUISH, U.S. Air Force (retired), Alexandria, Virginia WILLIAM E.KEICHER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts RONALD M.LATANISION, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN J.LEWANDOWSKI, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio DIGBY D.MACDONALD, SRI International, Menlo Park, California CARL H.MUCH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts SHERMAN N.MULLIN, consultant, Glendale, California WILLIAM E.RAMSEY, U.S. Navy (retired), Pensacola, Florida ROBERT E.SMITH, JR., consultant, Manchester, Tennessee DAVID VAN WIE, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland National Research Council Staff BRUCE A.BRAUN, Director, Air Force Science and Technology Board MICHAEL A.CLARKE, Associate Director ALVERA V.WILSON, Financial Associate MARGO L.FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate DELPHINE D.GLAZE, Project Assistant (1997) CECELIA L.RAY, Project Assistant (1998) NORMAN M.HALLER, Technical Consultant Air Force Science and Technology Board Liaisons ALAN H.EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN MICHAEL LOH, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program AIR FORCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD ROBERT A.FUHRMAN, chair, Lockheed Corporation (retired), Pebble Beach, California ARDEN L.BEMENT, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ANTHONY J.BURSHNICK, U.S. Air Force (retired), Springfield, Virginia WILLIAM H.CRABTREE, U.S. Air Force (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio JULIAN DAVIDSON, Davidson Enterprises, LLC, Huntsville, Alabama ALAN H.EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge NANCY A.FORBES, PRC, Incorporated, Arlington, Virginia ALFRED B.GSCHWENDTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts ROBERT G.LOEWY, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JOHN M.LOH, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia JOHN S.PUSTAY, PRIMARK Corporation, McLean, Virginia ALTON D.ROMIG, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Staff BRUCE A.BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A.CLARKE, Associate Director ALVERA V.WILSON, Financial Associate MARGO L.FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate DEANNA SPARGER, Project Assistant NORMAN M.HALLER, Technical Consultant Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Liaisons RONALD YATES, U.S. Air Force (retired), Monument, Colorado BRADFORD PARKINSON, Stanford University, Stanford, California

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Acknowledgment This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the National Research Council in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Donald W.Bahr, General Electric Aircraft Engines (retired) Daniel B.DeBra, Stanford University Alan C.Brown, Lockheed Corporation (retired) Hans G.Hornung, California Institute of Technology Bernard L.Koff, Pratt & Whitney (retired) Alton D.Romig, Sandia National Laboratories Richard E.Tressler, The Pennsylvania State University While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Preface The U.S. Air Force has been investigating the enabling technologies for hypersonic systems for decades but has not produced an operational, air-breathing, hypersonic aircraft or cruise missile system. The National Research Council (NRC) was asked to examine the question of whether the technologies that are required for a hypersonic, air-breathing, hydrocarbon-fueled missile can be demonstrated in time to achieve an initial operational capability by 2015 (see the Statement of Task in Chapter 1 for the official charge to the NRC). The members of the NRC study committee that I had the privilege to lead are experts in hypersonics and related technologies that are germane to the development of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles, and to aerospace management. The report deals directly with the questions asked by the Air Force and is as objective as possible. For this display of professionalism on the part of the committee, I am very grateful. The remarkable talents of the committee members made serving as their chair a special pleasure. I also want to recognize the important contributions of the NRC staff, whose support of this study, which was often taken for granted, was monumental. Their behind-the-scenes efforts ensured a quality product. For their hard work and advice, I and the committee thank them. A. Richard Seebass, chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   5     Background,   5     Prologue,   5     Statement of Task,   8     Strategy for This Study,   9     Report Format,   10 2   RESPONSES TO PARTS 1 AND 2 OF THE STATEMENT OF TASK   11     Overall Picture,   11     Meeting Operational Requirements, Question 2a(i),   13     Technologies Other Than Propulsion, Question 2a(ii),   14     Technical Components, Question 2b,   22     Propulsion Uncertainties, Question 2c(i),   23     Other Uncertainties, Question 2c(ii),   24     Technical Foundation, Question 2c(iii),   24     Interactions with Other Programs, Question 2d,   25     Milestone Dates, Question 2e(i),   27     Foreign Hypersonic Applications, Question 2e(ii),   30     Content and Pace of the Program, Question 2e(iii),   31     Infrastructure, Question 2f,   31 3   OTHER APPLICATIONS OF HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGIES   34     Fundamental Considerations,   34     Hypersonic Vehicles,   34     Technology Areas for Further Investigation,   34     Program Options for Future Hypersonic Systems,   35     Summary,   36 4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   37     REFERENCES   39     APPENDICES         A COMMITTEE MEETINGS AND OTHER ACTIVITIES   43     B AIR FORCE HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM   45     C ANALYSIS OF THE VULNERABILITY OF A HYPERSONIC MISSILE TO SURFACE-TO-AIR DEFENSIVE MISSILES   54     GLOSSARY   59

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Figures, Tables, and Boxes FIGURES 1-1   Altitude and range profiles for Mach 8 and Mach 6 missiles,   6 1-2   Altitude and Mach number profiles,   7 2-1   Airframe structural temperature requirements,   15 2-2   Structural temperature requirements of the engine hot section,   16 2-3   Structural temperature requirements of the engine cold section,   17 2-4   Comparison of moderately integrated axisymmetric design and highly integrated asymmetric design,   18 2-5   Block diagram of a guidance and control system of a nominal air-breathing hypersonic missile,   20 2-6   A six-phase road map to achieve initial operational capability of a Mach 6 to Mach 8 hypersonic missile system by 2015,   28 B-1   Overview of HyTech Program,   46 B-2   Road map for the development of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet missile propulsion,   47 C-1   Maximum potential interception range as a function of the target’s radar cross section,   55 C-2   Time from maximum intercept point until missile could pass over defense site, as a function of radar cross section,   56 C-3   Maximum lethal range of a hypothetical surface-to-air missile system against a nonmaneuvering missile,   57 TABLES 1-1   Engine Parameters for Two Nominal Missiles,   8 2-1   Summary of Parameters of Various DOD Hypersonic Programs,   25 C-1   Hypothetical Command-Guided, Surface-to-Air Missile System,   54 C-2   Estimates of the Lethal Radius of Surface-to-Air Missiles from the Open Literature,   57 BOX 2-1   Summary of the HyTech Program,   12

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Review and Evaluation of the Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program Abbreviations and Acronyms DOD U.S. Department of Defense GPS Global Positioning System HyTech Air Force Hypersonic Technology Program NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NRC National Research Council

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