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--> Effectiveness of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium as a Government-Industry Partnership Committee to Review the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium's Electric Vehicle Battery Research and Development Project Selection Process Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.1998
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DTNH22-94-G-07414 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06143-1 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-86227 Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. HA-270 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3344 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE U.S. ADVANCED BATTERY CONSORTIUM'S ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT SELECTION PROCESS LARRY R. FAULKNER (chair), University of Texas at Austin KATHRYN R. BULLOCK, Medtronic, Inc., Brooklyn Center, Minnesota PAUL A. KOHL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CARL A. KUKKONEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena ALEXANDER MACLACHLAN, NAE,1 E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware JAMES A. MCINTYRE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan BARRY MILLER, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio DAVID L. MORRISON, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Cary, North Carolina BRIJESH VYAS, Bell Laboratories-Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey ROBERT D. WEAVER, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California Liaison from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems ROY G. GORDON, NAS,2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES), and study director (from April 1998) JILL WILSON, senior program officer and study director (until April 1998) PATRICIA SPAULDING, project assistant (until January 1998) SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, financial and administrative assistant, and project assistant (from February 1998) 1 NAE = National Academy of Engineering 2 NAS = National Academy of Sciences
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--> BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM ROBERT L. HIRSCH (chair), Advanced Power and Energy Technology Collaborative, Inc., Washington, D.C. RICHARD MESERVE (vice chair), Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. EVERETT H. BECKNER, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico JAN BEYEA, Consulting in the Public Interest, Lambertville, New Jersey E. GAIL DE PLANQUE, NAE, Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE, University of Texas at Austin WILLIAM FULKERSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratories and University of Tennessee (retired), Knoxville ROY G. GORDON, NAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts EDWIN E. KINTNER, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation, Norwich, Vermont K. ANNE STREET, Geo-Centers, Rockville, Maryland JAMES SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California LINDA GILLESPIE STUNTZ, Stuntz & Davis, Washington, D.C. KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan IRVIN WHITE, UTECH, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia Liaisons from the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RUTH M. DAVIS, NAE, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, California Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director JILL WILSON, senior program officer (until April 1998) TRACY WILSON, senior program officer (until April 1998) SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, project assistant and administrative associate PATRICIA SPAULDING, project assistant (until January 1998)
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--> Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank the representatives of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy who contributed significantly to this National Research Council (NRC) study, whether by giving presentations at meetings or providing responses to committee requests for information. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of individuals from other organizations (see Appendix B). In addition, the committee is grateful for the able assistance of Dr. James Zucchetto, Dr. Jill Wilson, Ms. Susanna Clarendon, and Ms. Patricia Spaulding of the NRC staff for their hard work organizing and planning committee meetings and for their efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. Finally, the chair wishes to recognize the committee members for their expertise, their efforts, and their consistent commitment to integrity throughout the study. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the follow individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Jack L. Blumenthal, TRW Space and Defense Sector; Edwin Kintner, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired); Donald MacArthur, CHEMAC
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--> International Corporation; John Newman, University of California, Berkeley; Roberta Nichols, Ford Motor Company (retired); and Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Purpose, Scope, and Process of This Study 10 Electric Vehicles, 10 U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, 11 Origin and Scope, 12 Process and Organization, 13 2 Nature and Structure of the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium 15 Funding, 16 Management, 17 Role of the U.S. Department of Energy, 19 Infrastructure Issues, 20 3 Performance Goals and Project Selection 21 Program Objectives, 21 Assumptions about Market Requirements, 22 Performance Goals, 23 Operating Costs, 23 Selection of Projects, 25 Findings, 31
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--> 4 Technical Progress 33 Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries, 33 Lithium Batteries, 37 Fused-Salt Batteries, 43 Findings, 45 5 Management Model and Oversight 47 Effectiveness of Program Management, 48 Lessons Learned, 49 Other Management Models, 51 Findings, 54 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 56 Overall Perspective, 56 Program Goals, 60 Program Management, 61 Procurement, 63 Battery Technologies, 64 References 67 Appendices A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 73 B Committee Meetings and Other Activities 77 C Acronyms 79
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--> Tables and Figures Tables 2-1 DOE Funding for Advanced Battery Research, FYs 1990 to 1998, 17 3-1 USABC Performance Goals, 24 3-2 Performance Assumptions Made by the USABC in Comparative Cost Analysis, 24 3-3 Calculated Costs from the USABC Analysis, 25 4-1 Technical Summary of USABC Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Projects, 34 4-2 Technical Summary of USABC Lithium Battery Projects, 39 Figure 2-1 USABC management structure, 18
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