Appendix B Applications/Uses Of Weather And Climate Data

This is a list of some of the applications/uses of weather and climate data based on approximately 35,000 to 40,000 requests for information received at the Oregon State Climate Office from 1982 to 1989, and additional requests received at the Western Regional Climate Center from 1989 to 1996. Details may vary for other geographic regions.

Agriculture/Life Sciences

Plant diseases

cereals/corn/berries/grasses/

ornamentals/nuts/mints/melons/

fruits/vegetables/hay/alfalfa/

tubers/mushrooms/spices/

Plant growth

planting times

germination

dormancy requirements

frost probabilities

lodging

harvest conditions

Product quality

seed spoilage

transport conditions

storage conditions

Product marketing

Chemical tests

pesticides

growth retardants

growth enhancers

Seed certification

Relocations

introducing new crops

climate changes/fluctuations

Erosion

water

wind

Viticulture

Seed companies

Soil climatologists

Soil chemistry

Degree days - growing/chilling

Water Issues

water consumption

water stress

Drought

frequency

assessment

designation

Groundwater recharge rate

Groundwater use rate

Groundwater contamination

Irrigation needs

Soil-water balance



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--> Appendix B Applications/Uses Of Weather And Climate Data This is a list of some of the applications/uses of weather and climate data based on approximately 35,000 to 40,000 requests for information received at the Oregon State Climate Office from 1982 to 1989, and additional requests received at the Western Regional Climate Center from 1989 to 1996. Details may vary for other geographic regions. Agriculture/Life Sciences Plant diseases cereals/corn/berries/grasses/ ornamentals/nuts/mints/melons/ fruits/vegetables/hay/alfalfa/ tubers/mushrooms/spices/ Plant growth planting times germination dormancy requirements frost probabilities lodging harvest conditions Product quality seed spoilage transport conditions storage conditions Product marketing Chemical tests pesticides growth retardants growth enhancers Seed certification Relocations introducing new crops climate changes/fluctuations Erosion water wind Viticulture Seed companies Soil climatologists Soil chemistry Degree days - growing/chilling Water Issues water consumption water stress Drought frequency assessment designation Groundwater recharge rate Groundwater use rate Groundwater contamination Irrigation needs Soil-water balance

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--> Evapotranspiration Evaporation climatologists Runoff and nonpoint pollution Insects moths/worms/beetles/flies/ants/mites/ maggots/grasshoppers/crickets/caterpillars/ chilling hours/dormancy egg-laying migration host plant environment Pollination conditions Metabolism rates (=temperature) Pesticide effectiveness Introduction of new pests helpful (deliberate) harmful (accidental) Wildlife severe winters/summers habitat conditions migration transplantation breeding success birthing/calving success endangered species conditions refuge management Fish lethal/injurious water temperatures in streams and rivers behind impoundments ice effects weather-induced sediment loading passage time - anadromous species flow volume and timing ocean conditions hatchery conditions disease outbreaks condition of redds/eggs Grazing and forage conditions Caged and penned animals permanent (domesticated species) temporary (transplants/relocations) Bird counts growth/hatch timing dispersion Fungus distributions Landscaping Christmas trees Riparian (stream) conditions Experiment stations-research general databases conditions during experiments Forestry reforestation viability of nursery stock clear-cut/canopied microclimates Ecosystem management Parkland grazing conditions Regeneration rates Tree-ring growth and density Fire ignition and growth potential triggering events firefighting conditions labor force equipment deployment mop-up, restoration, reseeding erosion susceptibility frequency assessment insect kills descriptive indices (e.g., Haines) lightning climatologists slash fire planning Timber sale requirements Blowdowns Long-term climate variability Engineering Energy audits heat loss calculations utility costs users cities/counties/companies/ private citizens providers

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--> utilities hydropower supply rate setting energy demand fuel planning strategic planning Alternative energy (climate-sensitive sources) wind - means and extremes passive solar small head hydro heat pumps passive cooling rel. hum, alt. fuel motor Construction scheduling equipment inventories personnel hiring outdoor painting environmental conditions Product testing specific conditions needed specific conditions not needed fog instruments corrosion tests Uniform Building Codes Hazardous phenomena tornadoes lightning hail ice storms tropical storms Depth of frozen soil Balloon and helicopter logging hard likelihood performance standards Power line routing Stress on long atmospheric tethers Airports runway orientation runway length number of runways needed Instrumentation Diesel low-temperature additives Chip manufacturers Vinyl glue separation Electric field studies Design criteria roofs culverts, bridges, etc. storm sewers sanitary sewers aquatic center pools city and industrial ponds cooling ponds settling ponds sewage treatment hazardous waste containment mine tailings evaporation calculations Lighting Freeze/thaw cycle climatologies Frost effects Drifting snow (depth/orientation) Dam design Boiler capacity Refrigeration needs Generators Greenhouse heating/cooling Structure orientation Structure strength Pollution dispertion Freeze probabilities Excessive values of heat cold wind rain snowfall snow depth humidity Wave Erosion - causeways

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--> Legal Accidents cars motorcycles/bicycles airplanes railroads hang gliders falls on ice Storm damage claims adjustors real cause of damage ''act of God'' or expected crop damage wind hail heavy rain ocean waves open seas/beaches event insurance claims outdoor gatherings/events Environmental Impact Statements Endangered Species Act needs Biological Opinions Grazing allotment decisions Ecosystem Management background Hazard Rankings Environmental Assessments Wetlands determination Construction overruns Landslides Shipment delays/difficulties Pesticide drift Crime conditions murder/assault/violent crimes decomposition rates burglaries traffic tickets evidence reconstruction Water landfill runoff frozen/broken pipes subdivision runoff landlord-tenant disputes leaky roofs storage of household goods industrial painting disruptions dike/containment breaches seed spoilage Highway sanding/plowing conditions Pollutant transport Firefighting/rescue conditions Cement hardening conditions Health/workman's comp. claims Economic Development And Other Manufacturing/business development design criteria construction conditions marketing and sales impacts inventory deployment siting of shipping facilities Relocations from a far businesses manufacturing plants Retirement decisions Weather - sensitive products marketing decisions Agribusiness - development of new crops new products new markets Outdoor gatherings festivals concerts air shows auto/air/water/foot races Motion picture filming conditions Hiring of labor seasonal industries construction agriculture/migrant laborers forestry recreation

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--> News media magazines newspapers radio tv trade publications Historical event conditions Tourism vacation planning recreation climatology hiking/camping/backpacking/rafting/ bicycling/skiing/windsurfing/fishing/ hunting/mountain climbing/boating Health relocation influences skin problems asthma/respiratory allergies trace chemical sensitivity solar exposure melanomas uv effects on vision cloudiness climatologies altitudinal variation of radiation Chambers of Commerce Report inclusions National Weather Service background information local forecasting studies/tools Classroom/Educational Other states/Countries Local climatologies Climate trends yearly/decadal fluctuations regional climates el nino/southern oscillation global climate change Home energy and gardening needs Brochures Interpretive public displays General advice and interpretation Source: Course on Weather and Climate Applications for Resource Management. Kelly T. Redmond. Western Regional Climate Center, Reno, Nevada. 1997.