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Index A Acid rain, 36, 37 Afnca, 20-21, 23, 25-32, 34, 38-39, 50, 54-56, 88-89 Agriculture, 19-31 amount of land under cultivation, 20 and deforestation, 32 diminishing returns to labor, 19-28 economies of scale in, 50-52 infrastructural investment in, 50-51 intensification of, 21, 22-28 land tenure and, 27, 29-30 political climate and, 24, 25, 26 productivity, 19-31, 52, 68, 87 property rights and, 30 proportion of labor force in, 20 research in, 26-28 technology and, 50-51 trade and, 24 See also Resources, renewable Air quality, 35, 37 Altruism, parental, 81-82 Asia, 21-22, 26-27, 29-32, 38, 50, 53-57, 61, 64, 88-89 B Bangladesh, 21-22, 64, 88 Birth rates by region, 3 C Calorie consumption, per capita by region, 5 Capital human, 2, 6, 53-61 physical, 2, 6, 40~6 Capital dilution, 4041, 42 Capital formation and investment capital deepening, 41 capital widening, 41 Capital/output ratio, 41 Carbon dioxide, 36, 37, 39 Child mortality, 55-56, 57 Childbearing. See Fertility decisions Climatic changes, 38 Common-property revenues. See Resources, common-property 105

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106 Death rates by region, 3 Deforestation, 31-33 and erosion, 32 fuelwood, 32 and land tenure, 32 Demographic equilibrium, 8 Demographic variables, by region, 3 Desertification, 39 Developing countries. See specific topics Diminishing returns, 18 in agriculture, 19-28, 64 E Economic development. See specific topics Economic indicators by region, 5 Economies of scale, 48-52 in agriculture, 50-52 government policies and, 49 in households, 56 in manufacturing, 4849 urbanization and, 69 Education and economic performance, 53-54 effect on income, 59 family size and, 55-57 government spending for, 58-60 population growth and, 57-60, 86-87, 89 public subsidy of, 80 rates of return for, 54, 59, 80 by region, 5 "sibiling chains of assistance," 56 Environment, concerns of developing countries, 37-39 Erosion, 28, 29, 37 costs of, 38 Eutrophication, 36 INDEX Family intrafamily externalities, 81-82 microeconomics of, 4 and population growth, 4 welfare, 91-92 Family planning, 57, 91-93 external benefits of, 82 government policy and, 82, 92 human rights and, 92 income and, 57 See also Fertility decisions Family size, 55-57 child mortality and, 55-56 and expenditures on health and food, 56 and grades in school, 55 spacing patterns and, 56 See also Fertility decisions Famine, 55 Fertility decline in, consequences, 6-10 and government policy, 7, 57, 58 World Fertility Survey, 55 Fertility decisions, 78-84 and distribution of income, 80-81 and education costs, 80 and environmental resources, 79 equity issues and, 83, 92 externalities, 78-84 and goods and services infrastructure, 79-80 government policy and, 82 incentives versus fixed limits, 82-83 social costs and benefits of, 78-79 and "tastes" for children, 83 See also Family planning; Family size Fertility rates by region, 3 Fisheries, 33 Fluorocarbon buildup in atmosphere, 36, 37 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 23, 24

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INDEX Forests, 31-33 Fossil fuels, 11, 15, 35, 37 G Global 2000 Report to the President, 4, 24 Government policy and agricultural productivity, 20, 51 and economies of scale, 49 and family planning, 82, 92-93 and fertility, 7, 57, 58 and fertility decisions, 82 and health programs, 61 and technological innovation, 49 Greenhouse effect, 35, 39 H Health and economic growth, 54-55 effect of population growth on expenditures for, 60-61 effect of urbanization on health care, 66 and family size, 55-57 population growth and, 86 Housing, 74, 75-76 Income distribution of, 62-65, 88 effect of population growth on, 4, 62-63, 87 inequality of, 62-65 per capita, 4, 7, 4041, 42, 47, 54, 62, 66, 68, 87 Inequality of income, 62-63, 81 sexual, 65 Infant mortality. See Child mortality Intergenerational cooperation, 81 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IL\SA), 23, 24 Instigation, 19, 20, 50 107 L Labor diminishing returns to, in agriculture, 19-28 proportion in agriculture, 20 proportion in industry, 70-71 proportion in services, 71 Labor markets, 71-73 discrimination in, 72 effect of trade policy on, 74 modern versus informal, 71, 72 and population growth, 71-73 segmentation of, 72 supply and demand in, 71, 73 See also Markets Land. See Agriculture Latin America, 20, 25, 29, 31, 33, 59, 60, 61, 64 Life expectancy, 1, 54-55 in developing countries, 1 by region, 3 Literacy by region, 5 Localization economies, 48 M Manufacturing economies of scale in, 48-49 markets and technology, 49 Markets, 11, 88 and agricultural productivity, 25, 29, 31 and exhaustible resources, 1 1-14 and manufacturing, 49 See also Labor markets Middle East, 24 Migration to cities, 67 and population growth, 7 rural-urban, 68, 69-70, 73, 87 Minerals, 11, 15 o Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 91

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108 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 13 Overgrazing, 38-39 p Parental altruism, 81-82 Physicians, persons per, by region, 5 Pollution, 36 Population data, 3, 5 Population externalities, 78-84 Population growth. see specific topics Population growth models, 4 Population growth rates by region, 3 Population projections for developing countries, 10 Property rights, 30, 78, 88 R Resources agricultural, 28-31 common-properbr, 35-39, 79-80 environmental, 35-39, 79 exhaustible, 4, 11-17, 85-86 and market mechanisms, 11 monopoly of, 13 renewable, 18-34, 86 scarcity of, 4, 16 supply and demand, 11-12 S Savings, 43-46 effect of urbanization on, 69 individual and household versus government and corporate, 44 Schooling. see Education Soil conservation, 29-31 Species loss, 38 INDEX T Technological innovation, 47-52 U Unemployment and underemployment, 72 Unionization, 72 United Nations data, 1, 3, 10, 21, 23, 31, 67, 68 Urbanization, 66-77 of developing cot ies, 66-67 distinguished from city growth, 67-69 and economic growth, 69-71 effect on education, 66 effect on health care, 66 effect on per capita income, 66 historical perspective, 67 and housing, 74, 75-76 industrialization and, 66, 70-73 and migration, 68, 69-70, 73 and per capita income, 68, 7~75 population growth and, 67-69, 87 public service infrastructure and, 66, 69 and public services, 74-76 simulation studies of, 68 social costs of, 67 and transportation, 75 W Wages, 4041, 80-81, 87 Water, 35, 37, 38 World Fertility Survey, 55, 92