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9. The Antarctic Treaty as a Scientific Mechanism (Post-IGY)- Contributions of Antarctic Scientific Research William F. Budd INTRODUCTION The main thesis of this chapter is that humankind's quest for knowledge needs to be recognized as the primary motivation for the high level of continued interest and activity in the Antarctic. The treaty nations, through the Antarctic Treaty System, have supported this objective. Their fundamental basic tenets include peaceful cooperation among nations, freedom of exchange of results, and preservation of the antarctic environment. The basic quest for knowledge was also the primary motivation for the First International Polar Year 1882-1883 (Corby, 1982), the Second International Polar Year 1932-1933 (Laursen, 1982) and the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-1958 (Nicolet, 1982). Much of the new development activity in the Antarctic initiated by the IGY has been continued and expanded in the following period. This great post-IGY period of scientific research in Antarctica has led to a knowledge explosion producing an order of magnitude more information than available pre-IGY. This extensive antarctic information data base has become pervasive through a large part of other basic scientific disciplines. \ The importance of antarctic science in the general scheme of scientific knowledge was early recognized by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) in a 1957 agreement to form a Special Committee for Antarctic Research, later to evolve into the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), of ICSU. Since the IGY, SCAR has provided the international forum for exchange of information on scientific research plans, activities, results, logistics, management, and cooperation 103

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104 The Antarctic Treaty System formed after SCAR provided an international political framework for continued peace- ful cooperation in antarctic research. Much of this antarctic research is essentially international in charac- ter and global in significance. For example, the atmo- sphere and the oceans are not restrained by national boundaries, nor are the marine nutrients or the biomass. Consequently, other international bodies are also inter- ested in the antarctic region; for example, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmen- tal Oceanographic Commission. In recent years, increased attention has been focused on the possible resource potential of Antarctica (cf. Wright and Williams, 1974; Holdgate and Tinker, 1979; Zumberge, 1979; Lovering and Prescott, 1979). More detailed assessments, however, have revealed that eco- nomically viable exploitation in the foreseeable future is not a likely prospect and could therefore not provide the rationale for supporting the expensive "big science" inherent in the operation of continuing antarctic expeditions (see, e.g., Behrendt, 1983a; Quilty, 1984; Tingey, 1984). On the other hand, the scientific information is invaluable. For example, the global information set required to extend weather forecasts to several days or to understand interannual climatic fluctuations cannot exclude data from such a large and influential region of the Earth as the Antarctic. The impact of interannual climatic fluctuations on agricultural production and the global economy could be considered reason enough for a continuing antarctic program aimed at increasing our understanding of the global climate system. Antarctic research is much broader than this, however, and has impacted extensively on the wide spectrum of science. few examples of the key role antarctic research has played in the advancement of science are given below. The treaty nations represent that group of nations sufficiently interested in Antarctica to cover the expense of antarctic field activities. One subgroup of the members of SCAR includes the Southern Hemisphere nations most nearly adjacent to Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. The remainder tend to be technologically advanced, high- northern-latitude nations with strong traditional polar interests: Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Japan, Norway,

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105 Poland, the United Kingdom, the USSR, and the United States. Some nations, although perhaps similarly classi- fied, have extensive Arctic activities, for example, Denmark and Canada. The treaty nations have been prolific in their research and publications. These publications have become univer- sally available and extensively disseminated in inter- national scientific literature. This means that any nation can now become active in antarctic research through the analysis of an immense amount of data. This is par- ticularly relevant when it is realized that the antarctic region provides an excellent resource for global monitor- ing of the environment. It is a mark of the importance of Antarctica on the global scene that, now, tropical nations such as India and Brazil have joined SCAR, and other nations of the U.N. have expressed interest in Antarctica. THE POST-IGY INTERNATIONAL ANTARCTICA QUARTER CENTURY The continuation and expansion of many of the antarctic activities initiated during the ICY has lead to a quarter- century accumulation of antarctic knowledge. In addition, the advancement of technology and science generally has resulted in a greatly increased capacity for antarctic data collection and research. Some examples of these advances include satellites for remote sensing, geodetic location, and communications, automatic stations and drifting buoys, aircraft remote sensing and ice thickness sounding, deep ice core drilling, and sophisticated ice core analyses. In particular, the polar-orbiting satellites have been greatly improved and now provide a data bank of many years' complete mosaic coverage of the globe, including the polar regions, as illustrated in Figure 9-1. The cloud imagery depicts the high concentration of intense cyclones around the edge of the Antarctic. These large systems play a major role in the global weather and climate system. The antarctic stations as shown in Figure 9-2 form an extensive coverage of both surface and upper-air observa- tions essential for extended weather prediction. The already archived data are invaluable for testing models and theories of global circulation and the causes of climatic change.

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106 (a) OS~o CM::7 (b) ~ ~ 30 Go, ~~S ~ ~~- `- ~ ~ ~ \ . 2'^0 / \~):sot \ J1930~=,1 SUP FIGURE 9-1 Examples of: (a) a satellite thermal infrared mosaic of Antarctica and the Southern Hemisphere produced from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Nimbus 6 data on March 1.9, 1980; and (b) typical orbits of a polar-orbiting satellite system.

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107 The antarctic continent has also been gradually mor e fully covered by oversnow traverses, as shown in Figure 9-3. These traverses collect a wide range of data, including snow accumulation and ice thickness, crucial for understanding the ice sheet mass balance and its implications for global sea level changes. The ice thickness distribution has been more exten- sively determined from aerial radio echo sounding, as shown by a compilation of flight lines in Figure 9-4. Th is type of work has resulted in construction of detailed maps of the major features of the Antarctic. Earlier versions post-IGY include the U.S. Antarctic Map Folio Series Folio 2 by Bentley et al. (1964) and the Soviet Antarctic Atlas (Bakayev, 1966). A more recent folio, including extensive aerial sounding data, has been produced by the Scott Polar Research Institute (Drewry, 1983). Other landmark results include the features of the ocean, particularly from the voyages of the Ob (USSR) and the Eltanin (USA; cf. Gordon and Goldberq, 1970): the marine life (E)alech 1969); the bedrock geology, land morphology, and ~ _ _ _ _ , _ , , et al., 1968: and Be and Heduneth, sediments (Craddock et al., 1970; Heezen et al., 1972; and Goodell et al., 1973); the sea ice from satellite sensing (Zwally et al., 1983); the upper atmosphere (Penwdorf_ al., 1964, and Waynik, 1965); and the climate (see, e.g., Weyant, 1967; and Schwerdtfeger, 1970, 1984) . Many comprehensive reviews of the progress in antarctic science have been produced (see, e.g., Quam, 1971 ; Wash- burn, 1980; Polar Group, 1980; and McWhinnie and Denys, 1978) . The extensive resulting publications are considered further below. For the present it is apparent that scientific achievements of the period have been immense. Many data centers around the world provide an extensive service for archiving and accessing data at low cost to other users. In regard to the provision of scientific information for the global community, antarctic activities have been very successful. THE PROFITABLE NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES FALLACY In recent times, consideration has been given to the possibility that the potential of the Antarctic for economic resources could lead to international conflic t (see, e.g., Auburn 1977, 1982, 1984; and Sollie 1983) .

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108 O \ lOOOkm Tristan da Cunha I \\1 'Cough ~Isbnd \ 0 ~ - 7 SOUTH I AMERICA ,AR 9, Isiands - \R 5 \ / SOUTH AFRICa /~South Sandwich / a,UK 1\-. Islands /South Georgia\' Falkland AR ~ ~ \ cow Bouvet~ so 2 ^,.",:.~2 a.... US 1,, hi:,::::\ \::::2 :22 "1 1 I Not / \Prince Edward / \ Island ~ \FR IS \ Crozet W _ 4,\,\~. - \ \ AU 4 Macquarie- ' Island/ NZ 2~ b 11 ~ \ Tasmania ~ - 50~ Island \ 180 FEW ~ ~ ZEA LAND FIGURE 9-2 Location and nationality of the network of antarctic meteorological stations involved in routine surface and upper air observations "modified from SCAR, 1984) (Reprinted with permission). .

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109 KEY FOR FIGURE 9-2 Argentina AR1 Belgrano II, 7751' S. 3433' W AR3 Orcadas, 6045' S. 4443' W AR5 Esperanza, 6324' S. 5659' W AR6 Marambio, 6414' S. 5638' W AR7 San Martin, 6807' S. 6708' W AR8 Primavera, 6409' S. 6057' W AR9 Jubany, 6214' S. 5838' W Australia AU1 Davis, 6835' S. 7758' E AU2 Mawson, 6736' S. 6252' E AU3 Casey, 6617' S. 11032' E AU4 *Macquarie Island, 5430' S. 15856' E Brazil BR1 Comandante Ferraz, 6205' S. 5823' W Chile CH1 Capitan Arturo Prat, 6230' S. 5941' W CH2 General Bernado O'Higgins, 6319' S. 5754' W CH3 Tenient Rodolfo Marsh, 6212' S. 5854' W Federal Republic of Germany FG1 Georg von Neumayer, 7037' S. 822' W France FR1 Dumont 14001' E FR2 *Alfred-Faure, Iles Crozet, 4626' S. 5152'E FR3 *Martin-de-Vivies, Ile Amster- dam, 3750' S. 7734' E FR4 *Port-aux-Francais, Iles Kergue- len, 4921' S. 70 12' E d'Urville, 6640' S. India IN1 Dakshin Gangotri, 7005' S. 1200' E Japan JAI Syowa, 6900' S. 3035' E JA2 Mizuho, 7042' S. 4420' E New Zealand NZ 1 Scott Base, 7751' S. 16645' E NZ2 *Campbell Island, 5233' S. 16909' E Poland PO1 Arctowski, 6209' S. 5828' W South Africa SA3 SA1 Sanae, 7018' S. 0224' W SA2 *Marion Island, Prince Edward Islands, 4653' S. 3752' E *Gough Island, 4021 ' S. 0953' W United Kingdom UK1 *Bird Island, South Georgia, 5400' S. 3803' W UK2 Faraday, Argentine Islands, 6515' S. 6416' W UK4 Halley, Caird Coast, 7535' S; 2640' W UK5 Rothera, Adelaide Island, 6734' S. 6807' W UK6 Signy, South Orkney Islands, 6043' S. 4536' W United States of America US1 Amundsen-Scott, 90S US2 McMurdo, 7751' S. 16640' E US3 Palmer, 6446' S. 6403' W

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110 o ,4 o a) o SO a) _ A ~ a,, ~ - 3 of s a) ~ 3 o - ~ V - A, o ~ Co 1 ~ m c' 0 H ~' ED -

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111 r>: ~ Y_y_N2 I aim Id ~ :~. ~.~:::-.- 2 0,` ~ ~ ~ I ~;li ~I;i-'~ ., p ~ _, ~ . =_. X % _ ., ,.., - `,.,. By i', a) ~ _ O ~ ~ Go o m U] 0 ~ ~ ` 0 1_ US I, ~ 0 ~5 at; - 0D 0 ~ 0 ,_, - ~ En 0 ~ U] .,1 >' ~5 3 ~ a) \ ~ ~~4 o., ~~, At, _ _ _ Q ..

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112 fat lo ~ ' ,~5 J~sJ l - - - __ _- ~ m 1 1 \ Jo ~ \J ~ r ( \ ' ~1 - FIGURE 9-5 Relative areas of exposed rock in the Antarctic (Area 1: 0.33 x 106km2 or 2.4%) compared with that in the Australian Antarctic Territory (Area 2: .011 x 106km2).

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113 Such possibilities have lead to extensive activities in (1) Evaluation of resource potential estimates, (2) Evaluation of possible environmental consequences of exploitation, (3) Consideration of legal and political implications of resource-oriented activities, (4) Increased interest of the wider international community in the Antarctic as a resource prospect, and (5) The diversion of antarctic science programs toward resource-oriented topics. It is a thesis of this chapter that these activities are heavily premised on the idea that Antarctica may have significant economically exploitable resources within the foreseeable future. It is here contended that (1) If resources are being sought, there are far more prospective sources elsewhere, and (2) The redirection of antarctic activities toward resource-oriented questions may detract from the more important objectives of basic and applied scientific research. To support these contentions, four examples are dis- cussed: (1) land-based minerals, (2) offshore minerals, (3) marine living resources, and (4) ice as a water resource. (1) The antarctic rock exposures are small in total area by continental standards, they are widely dispersed over the continent, and they are generally in highly inaccessible locations. Working in the Antarctic for mineral extraction would be very costly. To place this in perspective, Figure 9-5 shows the antarctic continent compared with Australia. The small area of total exposed antarctic rock in the Australian Antarctic Territory represents a small fraction of western Australia, where wide range of easily accessible minerals is relatively abundant. Similar comparisons with the other, larger continental land masses are also valid. The rest of the antarctic continent is covered in ice, averaging about 2.5 km in thickness. This makes the rock underneath largely inaccessible. The ice, however, does offer a greater real prospect as a renewable resource. a

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143 - x o - ~q o . - U) C) 1 a, m ~ In o . - o P. o . - z In ~ 1 P. In .,. - I- U) .~ . 0 o, ~ CQ 0 In Io ~ ~ In UP UP or CO o o o o UP o 1 to to a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o ~ U. Cal o 1 1 o o 1 ID tD O lo o o o o 1 lo to or ~ ~ un u, ~ Or ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 - . - ~ ~ ~ r" ~ ~ 0 ~o 0 ~ ~ U~ C~ o iD ~r ~o 0 ~r U~ ~r 0 C~ - - er 0 0 =. ~ ~r C~ ~ ~ a' 0 ~ cn ~ 0 ~ 0C~ er ~ ~ O c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , - ~r CD ~ O 0 ~r U, ~r (D ~ ~0 a~ U~ un (D . - i4 ~ S << C) o 0 C~ - O O t~ ,4 U ,1 _ ~ V -0 O ~.rl ~n P. cn ~ ~ S P' 3 X .- ~ 0 _ _ o O ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ - E~ O ~ C) ~ O _ U) _ ~ O ~n ~4 ~; o C) n ~ ~ _ 0 - 1 't ~ ,` JJ _ o, ~ ~ Z _ _ % ~ _ ~ o" .~1 ~ 0 JJ V 0 - ~ p, _ -, ~ ~ ' c: _ rl ~ 0 - -o :, U~ - - o - ~ - :~: ~ . . ~ 0 >,~ P: ~ V ~ C~ ~ ~ s . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ 3 ~, _~ ~ u~ . a `~' ~, ~ Z Z ~ `n U33 0 bB cn ~ . o :3 ~ - tQ o rl . ~Q e ~: cq 8 ~ cn 0 o :~: 0 s t) s~ -

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144 regarded as an international park--perhaps the greatest natural park in the world--then the treaty nations could be regarded as working for the U.N., and the global community as "antarctic rangers" through the SCAR-ICSU system, to ensure that the laudable principles of the Antarctic Treaty are maintained. BIBLIOGRAPHY -Auburn, F. M. 1977. Offshore oil and gas in Antarctica, In German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 20 (Berlin), 173 pp. Auburn, F. M. lg82. Antarctic Law and Politics, C. Hurst and Co. (London), 361 pp. Auburn, F. M. 1984. The Antarctic minerals regime: sovereignty, exploration, institutions and environment. In S. Harris, ed. Australian Antarctic Policy Options, CRES Monograph 11, Australian National University (Canberra). Bakayev, V. G., ed. 1966. Soviet Antarctic Expedition Atlas of Antarctica. Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the Ministry of Geology USSR (Moscow). ~ ~ , ~ Balech, E., S. Z. El-Sayed, G. Hasle, M. Nueshul, J.S. Zaneveld. 1968. Primary productivity and benthiC marine algae of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, Folio 10, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 12 pp. and 15 mans. Be, A. W. H., J. W. Hedgpeth, eds. 1969. Distribution of selected groups of marine invertebrates in waters south of 35S latitude, Folio 11, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 44 pp. and 29 maps. Behrendt, J. C., ed. 1983a. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica, Geological Survey Circ. 909, U.S. Geological Survey (Washington, D.C.), 75 pp. Behrendt, J. C. 1983b. Are there petroleum resources in Antarctica? In J. C. Behrendt, ed. Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Antarctic, Geological Survey Circ. 909, U.S. Geological Survey (Washington, D.C.), pp. 3-24. Bentley, C. R., R. L. Cameron, C. Bull, K. Kojima, A. J. Gow. 1964. Physical characteristics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, Folio 2, Antarctic Map Folio Series,

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145 American Geographical Society (New York), 10 pp. and 10 maps. Brodie, J. 1965. Oceanography. In T. Hatherton, ed. Antarctica, Methuen and Co. Ltd. (London), pp. 101-127. Broecker, W. S., J. van Donk. 1970. Insolation change, ice volume and the 180 record in deep sea cores. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 8:169-198. Budd, W. F. 1980. The importance of the Antarctic region for studies of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. In G. I. Pearman, ed. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Australian Research, Australian Academy of Science (Canberra), pp. 115-128. Budd, W. F. 1984. Scientific research in Antarctica and Australia's effort. In S. Harris, ed. Australia's Antarctic Policy Options, CRES Monograph 11, Australian National University (Canberra), pp. 219-253. Budd, W. F., I. N. Smith. 1981. The growth and retreat of ice sheets in response to orbital radiation changes. In I. Allison, ed. Sea level, Ice and Climatic Change, IAHS Pub. No. 131, pp. 369-409. Budd, W. F., I. N. Smith. 1985. A 500,000 year simulation of the North American Ice Sheet and Climate. In T. H. Jacka, ed. Australian Glaciological Research 1982-83. Australian Antarctic Research Expedition (ANARE) Research Notes, Antarctic Division, (Hobart) (in press). Budd, W. F., N. W. Young. 1983. Application of modeling techniques to measured profiles of temperatures and isotopes. In G. de Q. Robin, ed. The climate record in polar ice sheets, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), pp. 150-177. Budd, W. F., T. H. Jacka, V. I. Morgan. 1980. Antarctic iceberg melt rates derived from size distributions and movement rates, Ann. Glacial. 1:103-112. Central Intelligence Agency. 1978. Polar Regions Atlas, National Foreign Assessment Center (Washington, D.C.). Chittleborough, R. G. 1984. Nature, extent and management of Antarctic living resources. In S. Harris, ed. Australia's Antarctic Policy Options, CRES Monograph 11, Australian National University "Canberra), pp. 135-161. Colbert, E. H. 1970. The fossil tetrapods of Coalsack Bluff, V. Antarc. J. 5(3):57-61. Colbert, E. H. 1977. Cynodont reptiles from the Triassic of Antarctica, Antarct. J. U.S. 12(4):119-120.

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146 Corby, G. A. 1982. The first International Polar Year (1982/83), WMO Bull. 31:197-214. Cox, A., R. R. Doell. 1960. Review of Paleomagnetism. Geo. Soc. Am. Bull. 71:734. Cozzens, S. E. 1981. Citation analysis of Antarctic research, Antarct. J. U.S. 4:233-235. Cozzens, S. E., H. Small. 1982. Citation analysis of Antarctic research: final report on NSF grant DPP 79-24011, Inst. for Scientific Information (Philadelphia), 87 pp. Craddock, C., R. S. Adie, S. J. Carryer, A. B. Ford, H. S. Gain, G. W. Grindley, K. Kizaki, L. L. Lackey, M. G. Laird, T. S. Laudon, V. R. McGregor, I. R. McLeod, A. Mirsky, D. C. Neothline, R. L. Nichols, P. M. Otway, P. G. Quilty, E. F. Roots, D. L. Schmidt, A. Sturm T. Tatsumi. D. S. Trail. T. Van Autenboer, F. A. Wade, G. Warren. 1970. Geology of Antarctica, Folio 12, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 6 pp. and 45 maps. DeWitt, H. H. 1971. Coastal and deep-water benthiC fishes of the Antarctic, Folio 15, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 10 pp. and 5 maps. Drewry, D. J., ed. 1983. Antarctica: Glaciological and Geophysical Folio. Scott Polar Research Institute (Cambridge), 9 map sheets with text. Dubrovin, L. I., V. N. Petrov. 1971. Scientific stations in Antarctica 1882-1963, Hydrometeoro- logical Service (Leningrad), 1967. English translation: Polar Information Service, National Science Foundation (Washington, D.C.). Edmond, J. M. 1975. Geochemistry of the circumpolar current, Oceanus 18(4):36-39. El-Sayed, S. Z. 1975. Biology of the Southern Ocean, Oceanus 18(4):40-49. Fraser, P. J., P. Hysen, G. I. Pearman. 1980. Global atmospheric carbon dioxide space and time variability: an analysis, with emphasis on new data for model validation. In G. Pearman, ed. CarbOn Dioxide and Climate: Australian Research, Australian Academy of Science, Australian National UniversitY (Canberra), pp. 33-40. Funaki, M. 1984. Paleomagnetic Investigation of McMurdo Sound region, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctic, Mem. Nat. Inst. Polar Res. Ser. C, No. 16, 81 pp.

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147 Goodell, H. G., R. Houtz, M. Ewing, D. Hayes, B. Naini, R. J. Echols, J. P. Kennet, J. G. Donahue. 1973. Marine sediments of the Southern Ocean, Folio 17, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 18 pp. and 9 maps. Gordienko, F. G., V. M. Kotlaykov, E. S. Korotkevich, N. I. Barkov, S. D. Nikolayev. 1983. New results of oxygen-isotope studies of the ice core from Vostok Station down to the depth of 1412 m (in Russian), Data of Glaciological Studies, Chronicle, Discussion, Pub. No. 46, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow), pp. 168-171. Gordon, A. L. 1971. Oceanography of Antarctic waters In J. L. Reid, ed. Antarctic Oceanology, Antarctic Research Series Vol. 15, American Geophysical Union (Washington, D.C.), pp. 169-203. Gordon, A. L., R. D. Goldberg. 1970. Circumpolar characteristics of Antarctic waters, Folio 13, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 6 pp. and 19 maps. Grosswald, M. G. 1983. On the interpretation of a new oxygenisotope curve from Vostok station (in Russian), Data of Glaciological Studies, Chronicle, Discussion Pub. No. 46, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow), pp. 171-174. Guthridge, G. G. 1983. Citation of research literature, Antarctic J. U.S. 18(2):12-13. Hays, J. D. 1978. A review of the Late Quaternary climate history of Antarctic Seas. In E. M. van Zinderen Bakker, ed. Antarctic Glacial History and World Paleoenvironments, Balkema (Rotterdam), p. 57-71. Hays, J. D., J. A. Lozano, N. J. Shackleton, G. Irving. 1976. Reconstruction of the Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean. In R. M. Kline and J. D. Hays, eds. Investigations of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Geol. Soc. Am. Memoir (Boulder), 145:337-372. Heezen, B. C., M. Tharp, C. R. Bentley. 1972. Morphology of the Earth in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic, Folio 16, Antarctic Map Folio Series, American Geographical Society (New York), 16 pp. and 8 maps. Holdgate, M. W. 1984. The use and abuse of polar environmental resources. Polar Rec. 22(136):25-48. Holdgate, M. W., J. Tinker. 1979. Oil and other minerals in the Antarctic, House of Print (London), 51 pp. .

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148 Husseiny, A. A., ed. 1978. Iceberg utilization, In Proceedings of the First International Conference, Ames, Iowa, 1977. Permagon (New York), pp. xi-xiii, xvii, 731-732. Judson, S. 1971. Physical Geology, 4th ed. Prentice-Hall (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.), 687 pp. Knox, G. A. 1983. The living resources of the Southern Ocean: a scientific overview. In F. Orrego Vicuna, ed. Antarctic Resources Policy: Scientific, Legal and Political Issues, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), pp. 21-60. Laursen, V. 1982. The Second International Polar Year (1932/33) WHO Bull. 31:214-222. Laws, R. 1983. Antarctica: a convergence of life, New Sci. 99:608-616. Lawson, J. D., D. S. Russell-Head. 1983. Augmentation of urban water by Antarctic icebergs, In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Coastal Engineering Conference, ASCE/Cape Town, South Africa/Nov. 14-19, p. 2610-2618. Lovering, J. F., J. R. V. Prescott. 1979. Last of Lands: Antarctica, Melbourne University Press (Melbourne), 212 pp. McGregor, P. M., A. J. McEwin, J. C. Dooley. 1983. Secular motion of the south magnetic pole. In R. L. Oliver et al., eds. Antarctic Earth Sciences, Australian Academy of Science (Canberra), pp. 603-606 e McWhinnie, M. A., C. J. Denys. 1978. Antarctic marine living resources with special reference to krill Euphausia superba Assessment of adequacy of present knowledge, Report to the National Science Foundation (lOB-21492), DePaul University (Chicago), 209 pp. Milne, P., J. D. Smith. 1980. Measurement of dissolved carbonate parameters in Antarctic coastal waters. In G. I. Pearman, ed. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Australian Research, Australian Academy of Science, Australian National University (Canberra), pp. 137-142. Mook, W. G., M. Koopmans, A. F. Carter, C. D. Keeling. 1983. Seasonal, latitudinal and secular variations in the abundance and isotopic ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide, 1, Results from land stations, J. Geophys. Res. 88:915-920, 933. Morgan, V. I., W. F. Budd. 1978. The distribution, movement, and melt rates of Antarctic icebergs. In A. A. Husseiny, ed. Iceberg Utilization, Proceedings of the First International Conference, Pergamon (London), pp. 220-228.

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