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8. Summary of Science in Antarctica Prior to and Including the International Geophysical Year Robert H. Rufford A summary of antarctic science up to and including the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) is not an easy undertaking. It is difficult to separate geographic exploration from science, and it is clear that for most of the history of antarctic science the two have been closely tied. This review is based on summaries that have been prepared for other purposes, and includes liberal use of those documents listed at the end of this article. The legendary southern continent, now known as Antarc- tica, has long intrigued geographers and cartographers. Pythagoras in 600 B.C. postulated a spherical world and convinced his students that large land masses would be found in the Southern Hemisphere to balance those already known in the Northern Hemisphere. In the second century A.D., Ptolemy drew a map with a huge southern land mass called "terra incognita": a name that is appropriate even today. Ptolemy linked southern Africa with the Malay Peninsula, making the Indian Ocean a closed basin, and it was not until the end of the fifteenth century when European sailors reported rounding the Cape of Good Hope and sailing into the Indian Ocean that this concept was proven wrong. Magellan's transit from the Atlantic into the Pacific through the Straits of Magellan in the early part of the sixteenth century lead to the conclusion that the land to the south, Tierra del Fuego, was part of the great southern continent, Terra Australis. By 1531 a southern continent was shown on a map drafted by Orantius, a map copied by Mercator in 1538. There is shocking similarity between the shape of the postulative land mass and the actual land mass as determined several centuries later. 87
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88 In the late fifteenth century, Sir Francis Drake was blown well south of Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn on his voyage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, thus proving that if a land mass did exist to the south it was not connected to Tierra del Fuego and must lie much farther south than had been postulated. Continued exploration and attempts to establish trade routes led to additional voyages in the Drake Passage area. It has been suggested that South Georgia was sighted by a British merchant vessel captained by de la Roche in 1675. As a result of exploration in the Pacific and the discovery of New Zealand, it was suggested by some that if a southern continent did exist, it was not the cold inhospitable continent we know it to be today. In 1739 the French Captain Bouvet discovered the island that now bears his name. He continued to sail south, traversed along the edge of the pack ice, reported large icebergs, but saw no land mass. His travels gave the first real impression of the nature of the land mass if in fact one did exist. The circumpolar navigation by Captain James Cook during the period 1772-1775 established the fact that there was no land connection to the legendary southern continent. Cook, although he apparently never sighted land, crossed the Antarctic Circle three times, charted the north coast of South Georgia, and landed at Possession Bay. His ship penetrated to 71°10' in the Bellingshausen Sea. He reported the rich seal fauna present, and a century of intense sealing followed. Cook had with him astronomical consultants from the Greenwich Observatory, who in addition to assisting with navigation, made seawater temperature observations, noting a warm layer of water below the cold surface layer. In the early 1800s, exploration in the Southern Ocean was largely related to exploitation of the seal resource. The South Shetland Islands were discovered by Captain William Smith in 1819, and apparently the first seals were taken from those islands. The first overwinter sealing party wintered over on King George Island during 1820-1821. U.S. sealers discovered the Biscoe Islands in the same time period, and in 1821, Captain Palmer (U.S.) and Powell (U.K.) discovered and charted the South Orkney Islands. Powell measured water temperature, again noting the warmer water below the cold surface water. Captain Thaddeus Bellingshausen, leading a Russian exploration team during the period 1819-1821,-discovered Peter I Island and Alexander I Island and charted the
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89 South Shetland Islands, South Sandwich Islands, and th south coast of South Georgia. Bellingshausen towed nets behind his ships, noting that there was a difference between daylight and darkness trawl catches; he postulated a vertical migration of the animals to avoid daylight. Deacon notes that "he may have been the first to mention Euphasia superba, n krill, the staple food of the whales and penguins. It was during this period in the early 1820s that the antarctic continent itself was apparently first sighted. There is some debate as to whether Palmer from the United States, Bransfield from the United Kingdom, or Bellings~ hausen from Russia should be recognized as the "dis- coverer. n Incomplete records and less than accurate navigational equipment make it difficult to resolve this matter. It is clear that another captain, John Davis of the United States, first entered the words in his log, "I think this Southern Land to be a Continent." Davis on this voyage landed members of his crew at Hughes Bay. Captain James Weddell, sponsored by the EnderbY Brothers, made the deepest penetration south into the sea that now bears his name, reaching 74°lS'S in February 1823. Strong winds prevented him from reaching the edge of the Filchner Ice Shelf. Weddell reported on magnetic variations, ice movements, winds, and ocean currents. Captain Brisbane, whose ship sailed with Weddell, worked in the South Orkney Islands and made rough charts of their southern coasts. e In 1829-1831, Captain Foster, sponsored by the British government, made magnetic observations and measured gravity by pendulum measurements at Deception Island. John Biscoe, also from the United Kingdom, made a circumnavigation of the continent. Sailing eastward from the Falklands, he discovered land at Cape Ann in EnderbY Land. After wintering at Hobart, Tasmania, Biscoe con- tinued eastward, discovering Adelaide Island and landing on Anvers Island before returning to the Falklands. James Eights, a naturalist from Albany, New York, accompanied a U.S. expedition led by Captain Benjamin Pendleton to the peninsula and then on a cruise to the west. Following the voyage, Eights wrote a report on the natural history of the South Shetland Islands, making excellent observations on geology, fauna, and flora. He is credited with finding the first fossils in Antarctica, with discovering the ten-legged marine spiders called Decolopoda, and with deducing from his observations of icebergs on the western cruise that there must be a large
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go land mass close by. Eights may well have been the first trained scientist to visit the Antarctic. In the late 1830s and early 1840s a flurry of scientific activity occurred in the southern polar regions. Captain Dumont d'Urville, sponsored by the French Ministry of Marine, set out to sail farther south than Weddell. He was forced by unfavorable ice conditions to turn back and worked in the South Shetlands and Antarctic Peninsula before sailing into the Pacific. Following a year in the Pacific, he sailed south from Tasmania in a futile attempt to reach the south magnetic pole. In the process, however, he discovered the Adelie and Clarie coasts and noted that the magnetic pole lay inland from the coast. The U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1838-1842 was led by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, who was sponsored by the U.S. Navy with a Congressional Appropriation. wilkes' vessels explored both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, then headed westward in the Pacific. Later, they returned to antarctic waters and sailed westward along the wilkes Coast for over 1500 miles. It was on this voyage that Wilkes established the continental dimensions of Antarctica, and thus provided evidence that Antarctica was, indeed, a continent. In 1839-1843, an expedition led by James Clark Ross and sponsored by the British Admiralty and the Royal Society ventured south in an attempt to reach the south magnetic pole. Ross penetrated deep into the Ross Sea, discovered the Ross Ice Shelf, Victoria Land, and eventually sailed eastward to the Falklands, and then south in an attempt to penetrate the Weddell Sea. The three expeditions led by Wilkes, Ross, and d'Urville all had planned scientific programs, and while attempts to reach the south magnetic pole failed, they did bring back a great deal of information about magnetic variations, winds, currents, water temperatures, and fauna and flora of the areas they visited. Ross made numerous biological collections but had problems with preservation. Deacon notes that following the voyage, 234 species were described, of which 145 were new. Wilkes also brought back a great deal of biological materials and despite better preservation, it appears that little was published on these materials. One mono- graph that was published was written by James Dwight Dana, who was apparently the first to describe Euphasis superba in his excellent work on crustaceans. In 1841-1842, Captain William Smyley, a sealer from
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91 the United States, recovered a minimum thermometer on Deception Island that had been left there by Foster in 1829. The temperature of -5°F was the lowest reported temperature in Antarctica until 1898. During the 1850s Captain John Heard discovered the Heard Islands, Captain John McDonald discovered the island that now bears his name, and in 1857 a group of U.S. sealers first wintered on Heard Island. In 1872 the Challenger voyages began under the spon- sorship of the British Admiralty and the Royal Society. The scientific leader of the 1872-1876 voyage of the Challenaer. under the command of Cantain Georae Naves. was Professor C. Wyville Thompson. The studies carried out, primarily in the subantarctic islands, were part of a larger oceanographic cruise. Challenger dredged con- tinental type rocks from the seafloor, proving the existence of Antarctica as a true continent, and noted both a rich fauna and flora in the antarctic marine environment. The studies also included observation on depth, chemical composition, temperature, and currents of these southern waters. During this same time Period the shin Gronland, commanded by Captain Edward Dallman and sponsored by Albert Rosenthal and the German Society for Polar Navigation, sailed south along the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, pressing south of Biscoe Island and discovering the Bismark Straits in an area Biscoe in 1832 had presumed was land. A second German party, led by van Rubritz, sailed to Kerguelan and Heard Island to inves- tigate possible sites for a base to observe the transit of Venus. Almost 20 years lapsed before activity resumed in the exploration of Antarctica. In the early 1890s, a Scottish whaling expedition of four vessels visited the peninsula area. Two surgeons, W. S. Bruce, who later returned to Antarctica, and C. W. Donald, accompanied this cruise and, despite the concentration on commercial activities, were able to make some observations on the fauna of coastal zones. One of the ships discovered Dundee Island, the strait between it, and the Jooinville Islands, and explored both Erebus and Terror gulf to the south. The Norwegian effort began in earnest at this time also. Captain C. A. Larsen combined whaling, sealing, and exploration, collecting plant and animal fossils from Seymour Island and exploring the east side of the peninsula along the Larsen Ice Shelf. In 1894-1895,
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92 Captain Leonard Kristensen, while in search of right whales, made significant collections of rock specimens, lichen, and seaweed during a landing at Cape Adare. A landing was also made on Possession Island, where rock specimens, lichen, and penguins were collected for later study. It was one of these landings that the first mummified seals in Antarctica were discovered and reported. - The now-famous cruise of the Belgica under command of Lieutenant Adrien de Gerlache of Belgium was initiated as a truly scientific expedition. The Belgica sailed south from Tierra del Fuego to the South Shetlands, then along the west side of the peninsula, penetrating south through Gerlache Strait and eventually into the Bellingshausen Sea. The ship became locked into the ice, and became quite unintentionally the first scientific expedition to winter over in the Antarctic. The ship broke free after a year and was able to return home with observations on fauna and flora, geology, glaciology, and the first set of continuous winter temperature observations from the Antarctic. In 1898 a German expedition led by Professor Karl Chan provided additional information about the form of the ocean bed in the southern Atlantic and Indian oceans and reported an accurate location of Bouvet Island. C. E. Borchgrevink, who had accompanied Kristensen to Antarctica in 1894-1895, returned in 1898 as leader of the privately funded British Antarctic Expedition. He established a land base on the continent at Cape Adare. His group was the first to land at a base actually on the continent, and they obtained continuous meteorological and magnetic observations as well as geologic and biologic collections. An important contribution was the descrip- tion of the shallow water marine life in the area, observations that set aside once and for all the notion that these waters were barren of life. Borchgrevink's party was picked up in 1900, sailed south and then along the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, landed at the Bay of Whales, from where Borchgrevink and two others sledged south to 78°50'S, man's farthest penetration south to that time. The first decade of the twentieth century has been called the "Heroic Age" of antarctic exploration. More important to this discourse is the fact that the increased activity included major emphasis on the acquisition of scientific data as part of the expeditions. During the 1890s, using reports from the Challenger cruise and
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93 evidence from the ocean floor sediments and drop-stones from melting icebergs, Murray attempted a reconstruction of the geology, meteorology, and glaciology of this still unknown continent. Murray pleaded with the Royal Society to fund scientific research on the continent. Clement Markham, president of the society, picked up the theme and lobbied for support. His efforts finally resulted in support for the National Antarctic Expedition of the United Kingdom. Utilizing support from the government, the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Society, and private donors, the ship Discovery, under the command of Robert Falcon Scott, sailed to Antarctica in 1902. At the Bay of Whales, Scott utilized a captive balloon ascent to make observations of the Ross Ice Shelf topog- raphy and extent. He then sailed west and established his base at Hut Point on Ross Island. The three summers spent on Ross Island resulted in many new scientific observations. The discovery of the ice-free Taylor Valley, two sledge trips up the Ferrar Glacier to the Polar Plateau that reached as far south as 77°59'S, and observations on life in the area were the highlights of scientific efforts, efforts that served as the basis for additional work in the area for the next decade and that are still referred to today. On the other side of the continent a German party led by Professor Erich van Drygalski was working along Wilhelm II Coast at about 90°E. Their ship Gauss was frozen in the pack ice and drifted for over a~year. During this period, stations were established on the ice for magnetic, geodetic, climatological, and tidal data. Drygalski also used a captive balloon to view the local terrain. The extinct volcano Gaussberg was discovered and named by a sledge party that visited the site. Glaciologic and geologic studies and collections were carried out, and a biologic program including descrip- tions and collections of birds, lichen, mosses, and marine fauna was completed. In the Antarctic Peninsula area the Swedish Antarctic Expedition under the leadership of Dr. Otto Nordenskjold set out to explore the east side of the peninsula. Extreme ice conditions made it impossible to get to the area, and as a result, the party split up, with a group including Nordenskjold establishing a station on Snow Hill Island, while the ship and the remainder of the party returned to winter on South Georgia. Difficult times beset the ship as it attempted to return to Snow Hill Island the next spring. The ship could not reach
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94 the island and set a party ashore in an attempt to reach the Snow Hill Island group. The ship, Antarctic, was then crushed by ice in the Erebus and Terror Gulfs and the crew landed on Poulet Island. Eventually, all groups rejoined and were rescued by the Argentine ship Uruquay. The Nordenskjold expedition produced significant scientific studies. Continuous records of meteorology and magnetics came from the Snow Hill Island party, geologic and cartographic work came from the sledge parties, and observations on glaciology were recorded also. Dr. William Bruce returned to the Antarctic as an expedition leader in 1902, concentrating his scientific efforts in the area of the Weddell Sea. In addition to meteorologic, oceanographic, and magnetic observations, Bruce established a meteorology station on Laurie Island, a station that was taken over by the Argentines in 1904 and has provided continuous observations since that time. The French expedition led by Dr. J. Charcot set out to assist Nordenskjold but arrived after his rescue by the Argentines. His work was concentrated along the west side of the peninsula, and the contributions included studies of tides, sea ice, magnetics, geology, and biology, including major collections of marine organisms. Shackleton arrived in the Ross Sea with the stated intent of conducting scientific studies and reaching both the south magnetic and geographic poles. Unable to reach Hut Point and r c-occupy Scott's base, he established a new camp at Cape Royds. Important studies included studies of freshwater lakes and the living organisms within them, geologic studies, and oceanographic obser- vations. A motor-driven vehicle was used to establish caches prior to the attempts to reach the poles. Shackleton's group reached 88°23'S in a vain attempt to reach the geographic pole, while Professor David's group was successful in reaching the south magnetic pole, then located at 72°25'S, 155°16'E. Charcot returned during the 1908-1910 period to continue his work on the peninsula. The scientific results were significant with glaciology, geology, and biology the major efforts. Important collections were made, especially a wide variety of species of birds, marine invertebrates, and marine mammals. The start of the second decade of the l900s saw greatly increased activity with the conquest of the south geographic pole a major stimulus. Amundsen, beaten in his attempt to be the first to reach the North Pole,
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95 sailed south and established a base camp at the Bay of Whales at the east end of the Ross Ice Shelf. At the same time, Scott returned to Ross Island and set up a station at Cape Evans. In the fall of 1911 both parties set out for the South Pole, Amundsen arriving and establishing the location on December 16, 1911. Scott arrived January 17, 1912, and to his disappointment found he had been beaten. Amundsen, having successfully used dogs to make the journey, arrived back at the Bay of Whales in late January. Scott's party of five had man-hauled, and were unable to complete the return trip. All perished by late March of 1912. The contrast between those two expeditions has often been cited. Amundsen's sole goal was to reach the pole and return safely. Scott combined scientific work with his effort, and some 35 pounds of geologic specimens were still on the sledges when the ill-fated party was found the following season. In addition, other members of the Scott expedition made studies of the Cape Crazier Emperor Penguin rookery, completed important geologic studies in the areas to the west and south of McMurdo Sound and on Ross Island, made extended continuous meteorological observations including the use of balloons for upper air studies, and also included magnetic and auroral research as part of the overall effort. The party left at Cape Adare did geologic work primarily. The results of this scientific work, published as the Terra Nova Reports, include also the oceanographic work done on-board the ship on the various legs of its voyages in antarctic waters. Lieutenant Shirase, leading a Japanese party, initially set out to reach the South Pole. Hearing of the plans of Amundsen and Scott, the party worked instead along the east end of the Ross Ice Shelf, where they named Kainan Bay and sledged south from the Bay of Whales to 80°S. A second group visited Edward VII Peninsula and the Alexandra Mountains. Dr. Bruce had suggested from his earlier visits to Antarctica that there was a possibility that the Weddell and Ross seas were connected. Dr. Wilhelm Filchner proposed that parties travel south from the edges of the sea and meet someplace in the middle of the continent. Unable to raise sufficient funds, his German expedition was able only to start the approach from the Weddell Sea side. He established a base on what is now the Filchner Ice Shelf, but was again set back by a calving of the edge of the shelf and loss of equipment. The goal of the expedition was not accomplished.
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96 Sir Douglas Mawson, leader of the Australasian Antarc- tic Expedition, established a base at Cape Denison on the Adelie Coast in 1912. Five parties worked in the area under the most extreme weather conditions. The first radio communication link was established with the outside world via a station on Macquarie Island, and the scien- tific accomplishments were most productive in geology, glaciology, and terrestrial biology. The expedition ship Aurora established a western base after charting portions of the Davis Sea and Queen Mary Coast. The ship carried out oceanographic work between Australia and Anarctica and discovered specimens of the Ross Seal. This was the last of the expeditions of this era that provided significant scientific results. Schackleton's 1914-1916 and 1921-1922 expedition produced little science but much adventure, and the southern oceans were dominated by whalers during the next decade. In the mid-1920s, scientific work began again. The cruises of the German ship Meteor introduced the use of the echo sounder to provide details of the topography of the seafloor, the South Sandwich Trench was discovered, and the presence of four distinct water masses in the South Atlantic was identified. At the same time the first of the Discovery voyages was undertaken. These voyages, carried out over 15 years using three different ships, were sponsored by the DiS- covery Committee of the British Government to provide scientific information related to the various conditions that influence the distribution and number of whales. A scientific station was established at Grytviken on South Georgia, and summer research programs were conducted each whaling season from 1925 to 1931. The importance of krill to the diet of baleen whales was substantiated, the relationship between the areas of upwelling, phytoplank~ ton, krill, and whales was studied, whale markings were made, and significant additions to the understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological components of the waters around Antarctica resulted. These voyages estab- lished an admirable record of scientific accomplishment, charted a great number of important areas adjacent to Antarctica, and developed techniques used by later expeditions in the design of their scientific research. A series of Norwegian expeditions during the 1926-1937 period made significant observations to the east of the Weddell Sea along the coastal fringe of Queen Maud Land as far east as 80°. The major contributions were mapping,
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97 use of airplanes for aerial reconnaissance, and th meteorological and oceanographic data recorded. In 1929-1930, Mawson led an international party on two voyages; the first worked along the Enderby Coast, the second along the coast of Wilkes Land. In addition to the further definition of the coast lines in these areas, valuable research was carried out in geology, ocean- ography, and biology, including marine mammals as well as small marine organisms. The U.S. interest in antarctic exploration and science had been dormant for almost a century until the first Byrd Expedition established a base on the Ross Ice Shelf in 1929. This expedition is best known for the first flight over the South Pole, but important geologic observations and discoveries were made as well. Rocks were collected from the Queen Maud Range, and the Rockefeller Mountains were discovered. The second Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1933-1935 included a major scientific component, and the utilization of the best technology available to accomplish the goals was a significant factor. Meteorologic records from Little America included both surface and upper air observations, seismic techniques were used to measure ice thickness and subice topography, cosmic ray studies were initiated, significant biologic work was carried out, and again geologic parties worked in Marie Byrd Land and the Queen Maud Range. Aerial reconnaissance flights fairly well established that there was no surface expression of a connection between the Ross and Weddell seas, and the general outline of Roosevelt Island was defined. In the mid-1930s, Rymill (U.K.) worked in the Antarc- tic Peninsula area, made important geographic discoveries including surveys that established that there was not a strait separating the peninsula from the continent. Long- term meteorologic observations were obtained, and an important study of antarctic seas was completed. The expedition of Ellsworth provided little scientific data, but of some significance was the discovery of the Ellsworth Mountains, now known to contain the highest peak in Antarctica. The German party led by Captain Aired Ritscher made a quick visit to the coastal areas just east of the Weddell Sea with the expressed intent of establishing a claim and mapping the areas. A lack of geodetic control made the photos taken of little value, and the claim of New Schwabenland was never established. e
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98 The Antarctic Service Expedition led by Byrd in 1939-1941 again brought a large group with a great deal of equipment to the continent. Two bases were estab- lished, one at Little America on the Ross Ice Shelf, a second on Stonington Island on the west side of the peninsula. A wide variety of scientific studies were carried out from each base camp. The usual geologic, meteorologic, biologic, and oceanographic studies were carried out along with one of the first studies of the physiologic and psychologic reactions by man to the cold. Between 1942 and 1955 both Argentina and the united Kingdom carried out numerous voyages that had components of scientific research related to hydrographic, biologic, and meteorologic studies. Bases were established by both nations, not only for scientific purposes, but to estab- lish their claims as well. Admiral Byrd returned to Antarctica during the 1946-1947 austral summer as the leader of Operation Highjump, the largest antarctic expedition to date. The intent was a massive effort to photograph the coastal regions of a large portion of the continent. The use of airplanes required ground meteorological data, and the use of synoptic maps helped identify characteristics and movement of air masses and fronts. Operation Windmill followed the next year with the intent of obtaining ground control for the photos taken during Operation Highjump. In addition, both geologic and biologic work were carried out. Helicopters were first used in support of research in the Antarctic. The pace and scope of research activities picked up - during this period. The privately funded Ronne Expedition to the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula included scientists, and the Chilean government supported numerous expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. The Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition conducted glaciologic, geologic, and meteoro- logic studies along the Princess Martha Coast. French parties from 1949 to 1953 worked in the area south of the Adelie Coast. The Australian party led by Law estab- lished Mawson Station at 64° on the Mawson Coast with a strong scientific component as part of the planning effort. A broad spectrum of observations was carried out, additional areas were explored . and new ~mn~ror an__- an, ~.,~ ~~" ~~~r~-~- ~enguln rookeries were discovered. All of this renewed scientific interest helped set the stage for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) activities in Antarctica. In 1882-1883, the first Inter-
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99 national Polar Year (IPY) had been held; 12 nations and 14 stations were involved. The two Southern Hemisphere stations were established, one on South Georgia by the Germans and one at Cape Horn by the French. Emphasis was placed on meteorology, geomagnetism, and the aurora. The climatology of the polar regions was greatly enhanced, and the value of a coordinated synoptic network of stations was demonstrated. The second International Polar Year of 1932-1933 again concentrated on meteorologic, geomagnetic, and auroral observations. The first IPy had shown that hich-latitude meteorologic observations were helpful in the understand- ing of low-latitude processes. The introduction of the radiosonde for upper air soundings was a key part of the program. Despite very difficult financial times, the second IPY was held. Forty-four countries participated. but still no antarctic station was established. Following World War II, the idea of a Third Polar Year began to be discussed. The technology that had been developed during the war and the increased understanding of the third dimension was a necessary ingredient to the understanding of both the atmosphere and the solid earth. The Third Polar Year soon became the International Geo- physical Year. The Antarctic was included as an essential element, and 12 nations agreed to participate in the establishment of stations on and around the continent. Forty-eight new stations were established in addition to the seven already in operation on the peninsula. Eleven programs, aurora, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity, ionospheric physics, meteorology, international weather control, oceanography, seismology, biology, and medicine were included as part of the scientific program. The antarctic continent was crossed for the first time, and inland stations were established at the South Pole, close to the south magnetic pole (Vostok), and in the middle of Marie Byrd Land (Byrd Station). The scientific results of the IGY are voluminous, and an attempt to summarize them here would be frivolous. The explosion of knowledge about the Antarctic that took place during this 18-month period provided substantial results and benefits. What is often neglected is the fact that the IGY research did not include geology, and it was not until after the completion of the IGY that geologic studies became an integral part of research. A second fact that is often forgotten is that despite the great increase in research activity during the IGY, at the end of that effort there were still large areas of
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100 the continent that remained unexplored and unknown scientifically. The interior areas of both east and west Antarctica except for those limited areas traversed by geophysical or oversnow supply vehicles remained blank on the available maps. Third, the IGY certainly can be credited as the international activity that spawned the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Antarctic Treaty. These two international organizations, each with a special mission, have provided a framework for continued scientific activity in a peaceful and essentially apolitical environment that has been marked by exchange of scientists and scientific data, coordinated international research efforts, and the continued growth in our knowledge of the Antarctic and the surrounding seas. B IBLIOGRAPHY American Geographical Society. 1975. History of Exploration and Scientific Investigation; in Folio 19, Antarctic Map Folio Series, V. C. Bushnell, editor, American Geographical Society, NY, 15 plates with text. Anderson, J. J. 1965. Bedrock Geology of Antarctica: a summary of exploration 1831-1962; American Geophys. Union Ant. Res. Series, vol. 6, pp. 1-70. Bertand, K. J. 1971. Americans in Antarctica 1775-1948; Special Publication No. 39, American Geographical Society, Lane Press, Burlington, VT, 55 pp. Corby, G. A. 1982. The First International Polar Year (1882/83); in WMO Bulletin, World Meteorological Organization, pp. 197-214. Crary, A. P. 1982. International Geophysical Year: Its Evolution and U.S. Participation; In Antarctic Journal of the United States, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., Vol. XVII, No. 4, pp. 1-6. Duncan, Sir George E. R. 1977. The Southern Ocean: History of Exploration; In Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems, George A. Llano, editor, Proceedings of the Third SCAR Symposium on Antarctic Biology, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, TX, pp. XV-XXXVIII. Gould, L. M. 1978. The Emergence of Antarctica; In Polar Research: to the Present and the Future, M. A. McWhennie, editor, AAAS Selected Symposium t7, Western Press, Boulder, CO, Chapter 1, pp. 9-26. Laursen, V. 1982. The Second International Polar Year (1932/33); In WHO Bulletin, pp. 214-222.
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101 Nicolet, M. 1982. The International Geophysical Year 1957/58; in WHO Bulletin, pp. 222-231. United States Board on Geographic Names. 1956. Geographic Names of Antarctica, Gazeteer No. 14, Office of Geography, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 332 PP. U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. 1943. Sailing Directions for Antarctica; H. O. Publication No. 138, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 312 pp.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: