the classroom with externally administered testing, assessment-focused professional development will be experienced by many teachers as an innovation that is nudging, if not requiring, them to change their practice. There is a well-established framework (Loucks-Horsley and Stiegelbauer, 1991) for thinking about the stages of concern that adopters of innovations typically pass through, and that framework, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is relevant here. Briefly, the framework's stages of concern span transitions from initial awareness of an innovation all the way to exploring how to refocus and improve the innovation. The stages are shown in Table 2.

To capture the flavor of concerns that teachers express about assessment, we interviewed ten people with extensive experience in designing and conducting assessment-focused staff development. The interviews yielded a set of concerns often heard by these group leaders, which we have sorted using the CBAM framework. (See Table 3.) Some of the concerns could sit in more than one category. For example, the bottom, italicized quote seems primarily to be concerned about consequence for the students, but also seems to foreshadow concerns about collaboration with other teachers. No concerns were expressed that seemed to fit under Refocusing. An example of a refocusing concern voiced by teachers once they have worked with innovations in assessment for a while might be, "Will the district support us in using grade-by-grade student work analyses to redefine the district's performance standards?"

Table 2. Stages of concern

Stage 0.

Awareness concerns: Basic awareness about the innovation.

Stage 1.

Informational concerns: Focus on learning more detail about the innovation.

Stage 2.

Personal concerns: Focus on individual's role, the demands of the innovation, and adequacy to meet demands.

Stage 3.

Management concerns: Focus on efficiency, organization, management, time, best use of resources.

Stage 4.

Consequence concerns: Focus on impact on students.

Stage 5.

Collaboration concerns: Coordination and cooperation with others in use of the innovation.

Stage 6.

Refocusing concerns: Exploration of more powerful alternatives.

From Loucks-Horsley and Stiegelbauer, 1991.

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