One plan for a state income tax requires those persons with incomes of $10,000 or less to pay no tax and those persons with income greater than $10,000 to pay a tax of 6 percent only on the part of their income that exceeds $10,000. A person's effective tax rate is defined as the percent of total income that is paid in tax. Based on this definition, could any person's effective tax rate be 5 percent? Could it be 6 percent? Explain your answer. Include examples if necessary to justify your conclusions.

Figure 12.

A problem from NAEP

From the National Assessment of Educational Progress, as cited in Lindquizt, Dossey, & Mullis, 1995.

interviewed report a range of concerns in the earlier categories, as well, implying that planning for assessment-based staff development should proceed from a concerns-based perspective, and allow participating teachers over time to begin reconsidering their perspectives on assessment, and to consider more powerful alternatives. The optimal staff-development event is one that addresses current concerns while it foreshadows future concerns.

In any case, it takes time to adopt and internalize new perspectives on assessment, and it takes considerable support. In the final section of the document, we advocate for actions that school administrators and others can take so that teachers get the necessary time and support.

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