TABLE 1-1 Deaths Caused by Cardiovascular Disease at Different Stages of Development—1990

Stage of Development

Deaths from CVD (% of total)

Predominant CVDs

Regional Examples

Age of pestilence and famine


Rheumatic heart disease, infections. and nutritional cardiomyopathies

Sub-Saharan Africa. rural India. and South America

Age of receding pandemics


As above, plus hypertensive heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke


Age of degenerative and man-made diseases


All forms of stroke; ischemic heart disease at relatively young ages

Urban India. formerly socialist economics

Age of delayed degenerative diseases


Stroke and ischemic heart disease at older ages

Western Europe. North America. Australia. New Zealand


SOURCE: Jha et al., forthcoming.

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