References

Abraham, W.T., and Bristow, M.F. Specialized centers for heart failure management. Circulation 96:2755-2757, 1997.

Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options. Investing in Health Research and Development. Geneva: World Health Organization , 1996.

AHA (American Heart Association). 1993 Heart and Stroke Facts Statistics. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1993.

AHA (American Heart Association). Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, 1998. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1998.

Azar, A.J., and Hofman, A. Costs and effects of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Medical Association 273:925-928, 1995.


Ballance, R., Pogany, J., and Gorstner, H. The World's Pharmaceutical Industries. An International Perspective on Innovation, Competition and Policy. Report prepared for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). United Kingdom: Edward Elgar, 1992.

Barker, D.J.P., and Osmond, C. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. In Barker, D.J.P., ed., Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: British Medical Journal, 1992.

Barnum, H., and Kutzin J. Public Health Hospitals in Developing Countries. Published for the World Bank. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Berrios, X., Koponen, T., Huiguang, T., Khaltaev, N., Puska, P., and Nissinen, A. Distribution and Prevalence of Major Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases in Selected Countries. 75:99-108, 1997. Geneva: The World Health Organization Inter-Health Program.

Blackburn, H. The epidemiological basis of a community strategy for the prevention of cardiopulmonary diseases. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S8-S13, 1997.

Breslow, L. Social origins of cardiopulmonary disease: The need for population-focused prevention studies. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S4-S7, 1997.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 69
References Abraham, W.T., and Bristow, M.F. Specialized centers for heart failure management. Circulation 96:2755-2757, 1997. Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options. Investing in Health Research and Development. Geneva: World Health Organization , 1996. AHA (American Heart Association). 1993 Heart and Stroke Facts Statistics. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1993. AHA (American Heart Association). Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, 1998. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1998. Azar, A.J., and Hofman, A. Costs and effects of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Medical Association 273:925-928, 1995. Ballance, R., Pogany, J., and Gorstner, H. The World's Pharmaceutical Industries. An International Perspective on Innovation, Competition and Policy. Report prepared for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). United Kingdom: Edward Elgar, 1992. Barker, D.J.P., and Osmond, C. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. In Barker, D.J.P., ed., Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: British Medical Journal, 1992. Barnum, H., and Kutzin J. Public Health Hospitals in Developing Countries. Published for the World Bank. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. Berrios, X., Koponen, T., Huiguang, T., Khaltaev, N., Puska, P., and Nissinen, A. Distribution and Prevalence of Major Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases in Selected Countries. 75:99-108, 1997. Geneva: The World Health Organization Inter-Health Program. Blackburn, H. The epidemiological basis of a community strategy for the prevention of cardiopulmonary diseases. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S8-S13, 1997. Breslow, L. Social origins of cardiopulmonary disease: The need for population-focused prevention studies. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S4-S7, 1997.

OCR for page 69
Brownson, R.C., Koffman, D.M., Novotny, T.E., Hughes, R.G., and Eriksen, M.P. Environmental policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular disease. Health Education Quarterly 22:478-498, 1995. Bulatao, R., and Stephens, P. Global Estimates and Projections of Mortality by Cause, 1970-2015. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Population, Health, and Nutrition Department (PRE Working Paper 1007), 1992. Carleton, R.A., Dwyer, J., Finberg, L., Flora, J., Goodman, D.S., Grundy, S.M., Havas, S., Hunter, G.T., Kritchevsky, D., Lauer, R.M., Luepker, R.V., Ramirez, A.G., Van Horn, L., Stason, W.B., and Stokes III, J.. Report of the expert panel on population strategies for blood cholesterol reduction. Circulation 83:2154-2232. 1991. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1990. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Worldwide Efforts to Improve Heart Health: A Follow-up to the Catalonia Declaration-Selected Program Descriptions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1997. Cook, N.R., Cohen, J., Hebert, P.R., Taylor, J.O., and Hennekens, C.H. Implications of small reductions in diastolic blood pressure for primary prevention. Archives of Internal Medicine 155:701-709, 1995. Cowie, M.R., Mosterd, A., Wood, D.A., Deckers, J.W., Poole-Wilson, P.A., Sutton, G.C., and Grobbee, D.E. The epidemiology of heart failure. European Heart Journal 18:208-225, 1997. Cutler, J.A. Prevention of hypertension. Pp. 192-194 in Hypertension Primer. Dallas: American Heart Association, 1993. Deubner, D.C., Tyroler, H.A., Cassell, J.C., Hames, C.G., and Becker, C. Attributable risk, population attributable risk, and population attributable risk fraction of death associated with hypertension in a biracial population. Circulation 52:901-908, 1975. Dowse, G.K., Gareeboo, H., Alberti, K.G., Zimmet, P., Tuomilehto, J., Purran, A., Fareed, D., Chitson, P., and Collins, V.R. Changes in population cholesterol concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factor levels after five years of the noncommunicable disease intervention programme in Mauritius. Mauritius Non-Communicable Disease Study Group. British Medical Journal 311:1255-1259. 1995. Enas, E.A., and Mehta, J.L. Malignant coronary artery disease in young Asian Indians: Thoughts on pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Clinical Cardiology 18:131-135, 1995. Epstein F.H. The relationship of lifestyle to international trends in C.H.D. International Journal of Epidemiology 18(3, Suppl. 1):S203-S209, 1989. Forrester, J.S., Merz, C.N., Bush, T.L., Cohn, J.N., Hunninghake, D.B., Parthasarathy, S., and Superko, H.R. 27th Bethesda Conference: Matching the intensity of risk factor management with the hazard for coronary disease events. Task Force 4. Efficacy of risk factor management. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 27:991-1006, 1996.

OCR for page 69
Forsen, T., Eriksson, J.G., Tuomilehto, J., Teramo, K., Osmond, C., and Barker, D.J. Mother's weight in pregnancy and coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: Follow up study. British Medical Journal 315:837-840, 1997. Fuster, V., Gotto, A.M., Libby, P., Loscalzo, J., and McGill, H.C. 27th Bethesda Conference: Matching the intensity of risk factor management with the hazard for coronary disease events. Task Force 1. Pathogenesis of coronary disease: The biologic role of risk factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 27:964-976, 1996. Goldman, L., Benjami S.T., Cook, E.F., Rutherford, J.D., and Weinstein M.C. Costs and effectiveness of routine therapy with long-term beta-adrenergic antagonists after acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 319:152-157, 1988. Goldman, L., Garber, A.M., Grover, S.A., and Hlatky, M.A. Cost effectiveness of assessment of and management of risk factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 27:1020-1030, 1996. Gordis, L. Epidemiology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996. Grabowsky, T.A., Farquhar, J.W., Sunnarborg, K.R., and Bales, V.S. Worldwide Efforts to Improve Heart Health: A Follow-up to the Catalonia Declaration--Selected Program Descriptions. Atlanta: Center for Disease Prevention and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1997. Grundy, S.M., Balady, G.J., Criqui, M.H., Fletcher, G., Greenland, P., Hiratzka. L.F., Houston-Miller, N., Kris-Etherton, P., Krumholz, H.M., LaRosa, J., Ockene, I.S., Pearson, T.A., Reed, J., Washington, R., and Smith, S.C., Jr. Guide to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the task force on risk reduction . Circulation 95:2329-2331, 1997. Hanneman, R.L. INTERSALT: Hypertension rise with age revisited. British Medical Journal 312:1283-1284, 1996. Howson, C.P., Bloom B.R., and Fineberg, H.V. The pursuit of global health: The relevance of engagement for developed countries. Lancet 351:586-590, 1998. HSF (Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada). Cardiovascular Disease in Canada, 1993. Ottawa: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, 1994. INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. INTERSALT: An international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure: Results for 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. British Medical Journal 297:319-328, 1988. IOM (Institute of Medicine), Board on International Health. America's Vital Interest in Global Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997. IOM (Institute of Medicine), National Cancer Policy Board. Taking Action to Reduce Tobacco Use. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998. Iso, H., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., Wentworth, D., Neaton, J.D., and Cohen, J.D. Serum cholesterol levels and six year mortality from stroke in 350,977 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 320:904-910, 1989. Jamison, D.T., Mosley, W.H., Measham, A.R., and Bobadilla, J.L., eds. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications, 1993. Jha, P. International Implications of the Proposed U.S. Legal Settlement on Tobacco Manufacture, Production, and Marketing. Presentation at the National Cancer Policy Board Tobacco Control Workshop, Washington, D.C., July 15, 1997. Jha, P., Jamison, D.T., and Habayeb, S. Approaches to Control of Non-Communicable Disease in India, A World Bank Background Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. forthcoming.

OCR for page 69
Kannel, W.B., and Feinlieb, M. Natural history of angina pectoris in the Framingham study: Prognosis and survival. American Journal of Cardiology 29: 154-163, 1972. Kaplan, T., and Keil, J. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: A review of the literature. Circulation 88:1973-1998, 1993. Keil, U., and Kuulasmaa, K. WHO MONICA Project: Risk factors. International Journal of Epidemiology 18(3, Suppl. 1):S46-S55, 1989. King, A.C., Jeffery, R.W., Fridinger, F., Dusenbury, L., Provence, S., Hedlund, S.A., and Spangler, K. Environmental and policy approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through physical activity: Issues and opportunities. Health Education Quarterly 22:422-442, 1995. King, H., Aubert, R.E., and Herman, W.H. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: Prevalence, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care (forthcoming). KNA (Korean Neurological Association). Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Korea. A collaborative study, 1989-1990. Journal of Korean Medical Science 8:281-289, 1993. Krumholz, H.M., Cohen, B.J., Tsevat, J., Pasternak, R.C., and Weinstein M.C. Cost-effectiveness of a smoking cessation program after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 22:1697-1702, 1993. Labarthe, D.R. Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Global Challenge. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc., 1998. Law, M.R., Frost, C.D., and Wald, N.J. By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? I. Analysis of observational data among populations. British Medical Journal 302:811, 1991. Lowther, K.G., and Moonde, M.M. Planning, design and implementation of primary health care. Experiences with Primary Health Care in Zambia. Geneva: World Health Organization, pp. 15-26, 1994. MacMahon, S., Peto, R., Cutler, J., Collins, R., Sorlie, P., Neaton, J., Abbott, R., Godwin J., Dyer, A., and Stamler, J. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1. Prolonged differences in blood pressure: Prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 335:765-774, 1990. MacMahon, S., et al. Eastern stroke and coronary heart disease collaborative project, part 1: Methods and association of usual diastolic blood pressure with stroke and coronary heart disease in 124,774 individuals from 18 cohorts in Japan and the People's Republic of China, forthcoming. Mahley, R.W., Palaoglu, K.E., Atak, Z., Dawson-Pepin J., Langlois, A.M., Cheung, V., Onat, H., Fulks, P., Mahley, L.L.. Vakar, F., Ozbayrakci, S., Gokdemir. O., and Winkler, W. Turkish heart study: Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Journal of Lipid Research 36:839-859, 1995. Marmot, M.G., Smith, G.D., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., and Feeney, A. Health inequalities among British social servants: The Whitehall II Study. Lancet 337:1387-1393, 1991. Marques-Vidal, R., and Tuomilehto, J. Hypertension awareness, treatment and control in the community: Is the "rule of halves" still valid? Journal of Human Hypertension 11:213-220, 1997. Martin J.D. Zambia-A country profile. see In Experiences with Primary Health Care in Zambia. Geneva: World Health Organization, pp. 1-6, 1994. Mbanya, J.C., Ngogang, J., Salah, J., Minkoulou, E., and Balkau. A. Prevalence of NIDDM and impaired glucose tolerance in a rural and an urban population in Cameroon. Diabetalogia 40:824-829, 1997.

OCR for page 69
McGovern, P.G., Pankow, J.S., Shahar, E., Doliszny, K.M., Folsom, A.R., Blackburn, H., and Luepker, R.V. Recent trends in acute coronary heart disease—Mortality, morbidity, medical care, and risk factors. New England Journal of Medicine 334:884-890, 1996. McKeige, P.M., Fenrie, J.E., Peirpont, T., and Marmot, M.G. Association of early-onset coronary heart disease in South Asian men with glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Circulation 88:152-161, 1993. Michaud, C., Trejo-Gutierrez, J., Cruz, C., and Pearson, T.A. Rheumatic heart disease. In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 221-223,1993. Murray, C.J.L., and Lopez, A.D. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1996. Murray, C.J.L., and Lopez, A.D. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global burden of disease study. Lancet 349:1436-1442, 1997a. Murray, C.J.L., and Lopez, A.D. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: Global burden of disease study. Lancet 349:1269-1276, 1997b. Murray C.J.L., and Lopez A.D. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 1990-2020: Global burden of disease study. Lancet 349:1498-1504, 1997c. Naylor, C.D., and Chen, E. Population-wide mortality trends among patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction: The Ontario experience, 1981 to 1991. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 24:1431-1438, 1994. Neel, J.V. Diabetes mellitus: A thrifty genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? American Journal of Human Genetics 14:353-362, 1962. NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). Morbidity and mortality. 1996 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung and Blood Diseases. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health, 1996. Nissinen, A., Bothig, S., Granroth, H., and Lopez, A.D. Hypertension in developing countries. World Health Statistics Quarterly 41:141-154, 1988. Olshansky, S.J., and Ault, A.B. The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: The age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 64:355-391. 1986. Omram, A.R. The epidemiological transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 49:509-538, 1971. Over, M., Ellis, R.P., Huber, J.H., and Solon, O. The consequences of adult ill-health. In The Health of Adults in the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 161-199, 1994. Pasternak, R.C., Grundy, S.M., Levy, D., and Thompson, P.D. Spectrum of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 27:978-990, 1996. Pearson, T.A., and Fuster, V. Executive summary of the 27th Bethesda Conference. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 27:961-963, 1996. Pearson, T.A., and Stone, E.J. Community trials for cardiopulmonary health: Directions for public health practice, policy, and research. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S1-3, 1997. Pearson, T.A., Jamison, D.T., and Trejo-Gutierrez, J. Cardiovascular disease. In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 577-594, 1993.

OCR for page 69
Peto, R. Global Tobacco Mortality: Monitoring the Growing Epidemic. Presentation at the Tenth World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Beijing, China, August 24, 1997. Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J., Thun, M., and Heath, C., Jr. Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Pooling Project Research Group. Relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking habit, relative weight and ECG abnormalities to incidence of major coronary events: Final report of the Pooling Project. Journal of Chronic Diseases 31:201-306, 1978. Reddy, K.S., and Yusuf, S. The emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation 97:596-601, 1998. Reed, D., and MacLean, C. The nineteen-year trends in C.H.D. in the Honolulu heart study. International Journal of Epidemiology 18(3, Suppl. 1):S82-S87, 1989. Reed, D.M. The paradox of high risk of stroke in populations with low risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 131:579-588, 1990. Republic of Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. Budget of Ministry of Health and Welfare, Fiscal Year 1996. Seoul: Republic of Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1996. Republic of Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. White Paper 1997. Seoul: Republic of Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1997. Rich-Edwards, J.W., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Rosner, B., Hankinson, S.E., Colditz, G.A., Willett, W.C., and Hennekens, C.H. Birthweight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up since 1976. British Medical Journal 315:396-400, 1997. Rose, G. Causes of the trends and variations in C.H.D. mortality in different countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 18(3, Suppl. 1):S174-S179, 1989. Ross, R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: A perspective for the 1990s. Nature 362:801-809, 1993. Ryan, T.J., Anderson, J.L., Antman, E.M., Braniff, B.A., Brooks, N.H., Califf, R.M., Hillis, L.D., Hiratzka, L.F., Rapaport, E., Riegel, B.J. , Russell, R.O., Smith, E.E., Jr., and Weaver, W.D. A.C.C./A.H.A. guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 28:1328-1428, 1996. Second International Heart Health Conference. The Catalonia Declaration: Investing in Heart Health. Autonomous Government of Catalonia. Advisory Board of the Second International Heart Health Conference, 1995. Smith, S.C. Jr., Blair, S.N., Criqui, M.H., Fletcher, G.F., Fuster, V., Gersh, B.J., Gotto, A.M., Gould, K.L., Greenland, P., Grundy, S.M., Hill, M.N., Hlatky, M.A., Houston-Miller, N., Krauss, R.M., LaRosa, J., Ockene, I.S., Oparil, S., Pearson, T.A., Rapaport, E., and Starke, R.D. Preventing heart attack and death in patients with coronary disease. Circulation 92:2-4, 1995. SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 325:293-302, 1991. Stone, E.J., Pearson, T.A., Fortmann, S.J., and McKinley, J.B. Community-based prevention trials. Challenges and directions for public health practice, policy and research. Annals of Epidemiology S7:S113-S120, 1997.

OCR for page 69
Thelle, D.S. Coronary heart disease mortality trends and related factors in Norway. Cardiology 72(1-2):52-58, 1985. Thom, T.J. International mortality from heart disease: Rates and trends. International Journal of Epidemiology 18(3, Suppl. 1):S20-S28. 1989. UN (United Nations). World Population Prospects: The 1994 Revision. New York: United Nations, 1995. United Republic of Tanzania. Policy Implications of the Adult Morbidity and Mortality End of Phase I Report. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Public Health, 1997. Vartiainen, E., Dianjun, D., Marks, J.S., Korhonen, H., Guanyi, G., Ze-Yu. G.. Koplan, J.P., Pietinen, P., Guang-LIn W., Williamson, D., and Nissinen, A. Mortality, cardiovascular risk factors and diet in China, Finland, and the United States . Public Health Reports 106:41-46, 1991. Whelton, P.K., Brancati, F.C., Appel, L.J., and Klag, M.J. The challenge of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in economically developing countries. High Blood Pressure 4:36-45, 1995. WHO (World Health Organization). Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 1990. WHO (World Health Organization). Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 1992. WHO (World Health Organization). Hypertension Control. Geneva: World Health Organization Technical Report No. 862, 1996a. WHO (World Health Organization). Tobacco or Health: First Global Status Report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1996b. WHO (World Health Organization). The World Health Report 1996: Fighting Disease Fostering Development. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1996c. WHO (World Health Organization). The World Health Report 1997: Conquering Suffering Enriching Humanity. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997. Wolf, P.A. Epidemiology of stroke. In Primer in Preventive Cardiology. Dallas: American Heart Association, pp. 67-81, 1994. World Bank. World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. World Bank. Mauritius Health Sector Review. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1997a. World Bank. Sector Strategy Paper. Health, Nutrition, and Population. Washington. D.C.: World Bank, 1997b. Zatonski, W. Evolution of Health in Poland Since 1988. Warsaw: Maria Sklodowska-Curie Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, 1996.

OCR for page 69
This page in the original is blank.