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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 THE CURRENT BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 11 Economic Development Brings Changes, 11 Atherosclerosis as the Underlying Disease Process, 14 The Global Burden, 16 Conclusions, 23 2 THE FUTURE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 24 Projections of the Future Burden, 24 Can Developing Countries Avoid the Future Burden?, 29 Economic Consequences, 33 Cost-Effectiveness of Prevention and Treatment, 35 3 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 37 Difficulties in Assessing Patterns, 37 The Role of Internationally Sponsored Programs, 38 The Role of the Private Sector, 39 Zambia: A Case Study, 40 Future Directions, 41
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4 CURRENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 42 5 PRIORITIES FOR GLOBAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 44 Context, 44 Research Priorities, 45 Research to Control Specific Risk Factors, 52 Health Services Research, 55 Government's Policy Role, 56 Building Capacity for Research and Development, 57 6 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 59 Effective Research and Development at Local or National, Regional, and Global Levels, 60 Models of International Collaboration, 61 Development of an Institutional Mechanism for Cardiovascular Research and Development, 63 EPILOGUE 65 Economic Impact, 65 Ethical Concern: The Concept of Health for All, 66 National Relevance, 66 Scientific Discovery, 66 Global Health Issues, 67 REFERENCES 69 APPENDIXES A Five Steps For Setting Research Priorities, 77 B Glossary of Cardiologic and Epidemiologic Terms, 83
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Control of Cardiovascular Diseases in Developing Countries
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