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APPENDIX Input Sulfate Fluxes to Lakes from Wet-Only Deposition and Output Sulfate Fluxes from Lakes: Data Sources and Methods Input sulfate fluxes to lakes from wet-only deposition (grams per square meter per year) were calculated as the product of sulfate concentration in wet deposition (grams per cubic meter) and the annual amount of wet deposition (meters per year). Sulfate concentration data from the Canadian Network for Sampling Precipitation (CANSAP) and the Air and Precipitation Network (APN) were provided through the courtesy of the Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada. Sulfate concentration data from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring network in the United States were provided through the courtesy of the Illinois State Water Survey. In total, we examined data from 3 APN stations, 16 CANSAP stations, and 17 NADP stations for the period 1980-1982. The annual average amount of wet deposition at these stations over the same time period was determined with standard meteoro- logical rain gauges. The flux data are summarized in Table B.1. These data were plotted and contoured, and values of sulfate flux from wet-only deposition at each lake were determined from interpolation of the contour plot. Output sulfate fluxes from lakes (grams per square meter per year) were determined as the product of the concentration of sulfate in lake water (grams per cubic meter) and the net annual average amount of wet deposition (precipitation minus evaporation; meters per year). The following summarizes the sources of data for sulfate concentrations in lakes. (Sample sizes are in parentheses.) (1) New England: Haines et al. 1983. States surveyed were Massachusetts (34), Connecticut (23), Rhode 441

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442 TABLE B. 1 Average Fluxes of Sulfate in Wet-Only Deposition for the Period 1980 to 1982 in Northeastern North America Location Station Flux (gm-2yr-~) Canada APN: Bale D'Espoir 4759' ,5548' 1.48 Kejimkujik 4426' ,6512' 3.37 Montmorency 4719' ,7109' 2.52 CANSAP: Acadia FES 4600',6622' 2.61 Charlo 4800' ,6620' 2.85 Chibougamau 4949',7425' 1.75 Fort Chimo 5806',6825' 0.62 Gander 4857',5434' 1.90 Goose 5319',6025' 0.94 Kejimkujik 4426',6502' 4.00 Maniwaki 4623',7558' 2.97 Nitchequon 5312',7054' 3.95 Quebec City 4648',7124' 5.19 Sable Island 4356',6001' 7.99 Saint John 4519',6553' 3.49 Sept Isles 5013',6615' 2.06 Shelburne 4343',6515' 2.87 St. Hubert 4531',7325' 4.32 Stephensville 4832',5833' 2.50 Truro 4522',6316' 2.96 United States Of America NADP: MAGI 4158'23",7001'12" 2.13 (3.01)a MA08 4221 '49",7223 '27" 3.22 ( 1 . 89) MA13 4223'02",7112'53" 2.16 (3.01) MEOO 4252'08",6800'55" 1.61 (1.55) ME02 4406'27",7043'44" 1.80 (1.62) ME09 4529'23",6939'52" 1.20 (1.29) ME99 4424'30",6814'42" 2.42 (2.40) NH02 4656'35",7142'12" 2.28 (2.37) NY08 4244'02",7639'35" 2.70 (2.83) NY10 4217'58",7923'47" 4.45 (3.28) NY20 4358'19",7413'25" 3.52 (3.28) NY51 4121'00",7402'22" 2.35 (2.05) NY52 4331 '34",7556'59" 4.34 (3. 13) NY65 .4206'22",7732'08" 2.32 (1.65) VT01 4252'34",7309'48" 2.28 (2.37) aFlux calculated using the volume of sample and collector diameter given in parentheses.

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443 Island (8), Vermont and New Hampshire (43), and Maine (33); there were many duplicate analyses. (2) Adirondack Mountains, New York: Charles 1983. Averages of lake profile data were used. Sample size, 51. (3) Vermont: Vermont Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 1983; averages over 3 years of monthly sampling. Sample size, 49. (4) Eastern Canada: Clair et al. 1982; including Labrador (105), Newfoundland (94), and Quebec. These were typically for one sample only and included some rivers. -(5) Quebec: Bobee et al. 1983; analyzed mostly headwater lakes in Quebec; the analysis consists of one sample. Sample size including lakes of Quebec sampled in survey (4) was 186. A value for the sulfate output flux at each lake was estimated in the following way: 1. Average precipitation amounts for 1980-1982 for Canada (contoured, supplied by Atmospheric Environment Service) and discrete U.S. Weather Bureau data for the United States were combined into one contour map from which the average annual amount of precipitation was estimated for each lake. 2. Average annual evaporation data were contoured and estimates of evaporation were made for each lake. Canadian data consisted of actual measurements of evaporation on lakes at 15 different locations in eastern Canada. Evaporation estimates for the northeastern United States were calculated for nonwinter averages of Weather Bureau evaporation pan data at 14 locations. The evaporation pan data were multiplied by a factor of 0.77 to account for the difference between pan evaporation and lake surface evaporation (Kohler et al. 1955). 3. The net annual wet deposition was determined as the wet deposition amount minus evaporation for each lake. 4. The sulfate output flux at each lake was determined as the product of the sulfate concentration of the lake water and the net annual wet deposition.

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444 REFERENCES Bobee, B., M. Lachance, J. Haermmerli, A. Tessier, J. Charette, and J. Kramer. 1983. Evaluation de la sensibilite a l 'acidification des lacs du sud du Quebec et incidences sur le reseau d'acquisition de donnees. Scientific Report No. 157. Ste-Foy, Quebec: University of Quebec. Charles, D. 1983. Studies of Adirondack Mountain (New York) lakes: limnological characteristics and sediment diatom-water chemistry relationships. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms. Clair, T. A., D. R. Engstrom, W. Whitman. 1982. Data report--water quality of surface waters of New- foundland and Labrador. Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario. Report No. IWD-AR-WQB-82-32, 55 PP ~ Haines, T. A., J. J. Akielagzek, and P. J. Rago. 1983. A regional survey of chemistry of headwater lakes and streams in New England: vulnerability to acidification. Air Pollution and Acid Rain Series. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report. Kohler, M. A., T. J. Nordenson, and W. E. Fox. 1955. Evaporation from pans and lakes. Research paper 38. U.S. Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce. Vermont Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. 1983. Vermont acid precipitation program--long-term lake monitoring. Montpelier, Vermont.