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APPENDIX CCharacteristics of Bench-Mark Streams Table C.1 and Figure C.1 give the locations of the U.S. Geological Survey Bench-Mark streams analyzed in Chapter 7. The numbering system used for these basins follows that in Table C.2, which contains data on the chemical composition of these streams, including estimates of time trends in concentrations of common ions using the seasonal Kendall test. In Table C.2, slopes of trends significant at the 0.1 level are denoted by an asterisk. Slopes of trends significant at the 0.01 level are denoted by a double asterisk. ID denotes insufficient data for estimating trends. N is the number of samples measured. Y/D is the ratio of basin sulfate yield to sulfate deposition. Sulfate output from the Bench-Mark watersheds was estimated as the product of discharge-weighted mean sulfate concentrations and mean basin runoff for the 2-year period from 1980 and 1981. Sulfate deposition at each basin was estimated by linear interpolation of wet-only sulfate deposition data from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) for 1980 and 1981. Table C.3 (which begins on page 464) contains descriptions of 16 basins of the U.S. Geological Survey Bench-Mark streams with alkalinities lower than 500 peq/L. 445

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446 TABLE C.1 Key to Location of USGS Bench-Mark Streams (see Figure C.1) Map Number Name of Stream Location 1 Wild River Gilead, Maine 2 Esopus Creek Shandaken, New York 3 McDonalds Branch Lebanon State Forest, New Jersey 4 Young Womans Creek near Renovo, Pennsylvania 5 Holiday Creek near Andersonville, Virginia 6 Scape Ore Swamp near Bishopville, South Carolina 7 Upper Three Runs near New Ellenton, South Carolina 8 Falling Creek near Juliette, Georgia 9 Sopchoppy River near Sopchoppy, Florida 10 Sipsey Fork near Grayson, Alabama 11 Cypress Creek near Janice, Mississippi 12 Cataloochee Creek near Cataloochee, North Carolina 13 Buffalo River near Fiat Woods, Tennessee 14 Washington Creek Windigo, Michigan 15 Popple River near Fence, Wisconsin 16 Kawishiwi River near Ely, Minnesota 17 North Fork Whitewater River near Elba, Minnesota 18 Castle Creek above Deerfield Reservoir near Hill City, South Dakota 19 Encampment River above near Encampment, Wyoming Hog Park Creek 20 Dismal River near Thedford, Nebraska 21 North Sylamore Creek near fifty Six, Arkansas 22 Half Moon Creek near Malta, Colorado 23 Blue Beaver Creek near Cache, Oklahoma 24 Kiamichi River near Big Cedar, Oklahoma 25 Big Creek Pollock, Louisiana 26 Rio Mora near Terrero, New Mexico 27 Wet Bottom Creek near Childs, Arizona 28 Merced River at Happy Isles Bridge near Yosemite, California 29 Hayden Creek below North Fork near Hayden Lake, Idaho 30 Andrews Creek near Mazama, Washington 31 Big Jacks Creek near Bruneau, Idaho 32 Minam River Minam, Oregon

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447 y~31 /~ 1 1 0 22 O20 ~ C l8 ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ !~' an, - FIGURE C.1 Locations of USGS Bench-Mark streams. TABLE C.2 Chemical Characteristics and Time Trends of Chemical Components in Bench-Mark Streams 1. WILD RIVER AT GILEAD, ME Drainage area (km2) 179.94 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 4.56 Period of record 1964 - 1983 Sulfate Deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.86 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.31 Ratio (Y/D) 1.51 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (ueq/l) 70 102.7 51 3.9 70 105.6 67 22.7 22 3.2 70 87.6 70 41.4 69 55.7 70 10.0 69 194.0 70 67.7 25 442.0 Standard Trend Deviation p 19.5 2.5 19.6 12.8 2.9 18.8 15.1 14.1 3.6 33.0 38.4 266.4 0.002 0.219 0.008 0.123 ID 0.219 0.539 0-.607 0.609 0.218 0.024 1.000 Slope (neq/l.yr) -1.5** 0.1 -1.2** 0.4 ID -0.6 -0.2 O . 1 0.0 -0.8 1.0* -4.4

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448 2. ESOPUS CREEK AT SHANDAKEN, NY Drainage area (km2) 154.0 5 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 3.79 Period of record 1964 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Ratio (Y/D) Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 1.16 1.95 1.68 Mean N Concentration (Heq/l) 162.1 15.8 177.7 94.8 4.3 274.0 100.7 93.1 8.6 476.5 198.7 329.6 153 143 154 154 51 154 154 154 154 154 154 89 3. M`:DONALDS BRANCH IN LEBANON STATE FOREST, NJ Drainage area (km2) 5.98 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.06 Period of record 1963 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.08 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.75 Ratio (Y/D) 0.69 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion / Standard Trend Deviation p 25.9 11.8 29.5 40.6 4.3 59.6 18.9 33.2 3.6 99.4 80.0 480.4 O .000 O .000 0.008 0.001 0.000 0.334 0.931 O .000 0.012 0.073 0.084 0.619 Mean Standard Trend N Concentration Deviation p (lleq/l) 154.6 4.5 158.7 99.7 1.9 40 36 40 40 16 40 50.8 38 44;8 40 79.7 36 9.1 40 181.7 40 -63.9 24 64227.0 Slope (paq/l.yr) 1.8** 1.1** -0.8** 1.7** -1 .1 * * 0.5 -0.0 2.0** 0.1* 1.6* 1.2* 9.1 85.5 3.6 86.0 26.1 1.8 27.3 25.2 19.0 8.3 65.4 37.1 29048.8 Slope (lleq/l.yr) 0.150 -4.3 0.787 -0.0 0.150 -4.3 0.369 0.6 ID ID 0.072 -1.7* 0.857 -0.6 0.125 -0.9 0.769 0.2 0.281 -2.2 0.472 1.2 0.296 4199.1

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449 4. YOUNG WOMANS CREEK NEAR RENOVO, PA Drainage area (km2) 119.61 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 2.04 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.16 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.44 Ratio (Y/D) 1.24 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 164.0 16.8 180.6 38.2 1.9 203;4 85.8 42.6, 20.6 352.7 131.9 195.8 140 138 140 139 25 140 140 140 139 140 140 92 5. HOLIDAY CREEK NEAR ANDERSONVILLE, VA Drainage area (km2) 22.08 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.23 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.00 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.34 Ratio (Y/D) 0~34 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Standard Trend Deviation p 29.6 7.9 30.3 13.8 2.5 30.1 15.8 15.9 5.7 51.0 55.4 143.7 0.936 O .000 0.041 O .000 1.000 0.297 0.345 0.059 0.2,26 0.100 0.014 0.255 Mean Standard Trend N Concentration Deviation (neq/l) 60.6 6.2 66.5 58.2 3.2 133.5 88.6 121.5 20.2 362.8 230.4 502.6 94 90 94 93 18 93 93 94 94 93 93 54 28.6 4.4 29.4 21.6 3.9 40.0 24.6 30.3 11.7 68.5 67.0 1559.6 p 0.471 0.095 0.280 0.068 ID 0.013 0.303 0.005 0.077 0.011 0.921 0.005 Slope (ueq/l.yr) 0.1 0.7** 1.1* -0.9** 0.0 -0.4 0.2 -0.3* -0.1 -1 .1* 1.7* -4.0 Slope (neq/l.yr) -0.3 -0.3* -0.6 -0.6* ID -1.7* 0.4 -1.2** -0.3* -4.1* 0.3 -78.8**

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450 6. SCAPE ORE SWAMP NEAR BISHOPVILLE, SC Drainage area (km2) 248.54 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 2.77 Period of record 1970 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.89 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.36 Ratio (Y/D) 0~40 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Scdium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (neq/l) 63.0 12.7 75.3 119.6 2.1 43.8 44.1 124.0 11.9 224.0 21.9 4699.1 101 100 101 102 18 102 102 102 101 102 102 80 7. UPPER THREE RUNS NEAR NEW ELLENTON, SC Drainage area (km2) 225.24 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 3.11 Period of record 1968 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.88 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.14 Ratio (Y/D) 0.16 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Mean Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 68 67 68 70 7 69 70 69 70 N Concentration (ueq/l) 21.7 12.6 32.8 63.6 2.7 27.1 24.6 57.8 6.2 118.1 23.2 1539.2 70 70 35 Standard Trend Deviation p 29.6 11.3 27.7 19.7 1.8 21.2 15.2 24.3 4.5 35.1 31.9 5692.7 0.000 0.700 O .000 0.949 ID 0.124 0.012 O .000 0.051 0.005 0.200 0.003 Standard Trend Deviation p 13.1 5.6 15.9 13.3 1.8 12.9 7.5 10.4 2.8 18.4 20.4 1033.4 0.058 0.006 0.012 0.000 ID 0.048 0.518 0.006 O .111 0.006 0.149 0.008 Slope (neq/l.yr) 3.3** 0.1 2.8** 0.0 ID 0.5 0.8* 1.7** -0.2* 2.9** 0.7 550.2** Slope (ueq/l.yr) 0.9* 0.4** 1.5* -1.3** ID 0.6* O. .1 0.8** 0.1 1.7** 0.6 131.8**

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451 8. FALLING CREEK NEAR JULIETTE, GA Drainage area (km2) 186.93 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 1.50 Period of record 1968 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.81 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.44 Ratio (Y/D) 0.55 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 101.1 4.5 103.1 94.4 3.3 470.9 391.9 327.6 33.9 1224.3 975.2 202.3 94 95 93 102 43 102 102 102 102 102 102 80 9. SOPCHOPPY RIVER NEAR SOPCHOPPY, FL Drainage area (km2) 264.08 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 4.44 Period of record 1965 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.91 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.90 Ratio (Y/D) 0~99 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (neq/l) 94.4 4.8 95.4 127.5 3.0 946.8 174.3 96.9 6.3 74 54 71 74 37 74 74 74 72 74 1224.2 74 960.1 39 14070.2 Standard Trend Deviation p 72.4 5.5 72.7 27.9 4.0 123.5 98.5 101.1 10.9 294.7 314.5 472.6 O .000 0.000 O .000 0.051 0.386 0.002 0.166 0.013 0.131 0.529 0.187 0.007 Standard Trend Deviation p 56.2 4.9 57.9 22.6 1.7 743.3 120.0 20.9 3.6 876.4 901.5 31289.3 Slope (ueq/l.yr) 3.7** 0.2** 3.8** 0.7* 0.1 -5.3** -1.8 3.2* -0.2 -2.4 -3.8 -27.6** Slope (peq/l.yr) 0.003 3.0** 0.730 -0.0 0.006 3.0** 0.195 0.2 0.894 o.o 0.796 1.9 1.000 -0.1 0.038 0.7* 0.893 -0.0 0.863 6.5 0.931 -1.9 0.810 452.9

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452 10. SIPSEY FORK NEAR GRAYSON, AL Drainage area (km2) 233.27 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 4.41 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.95 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.81 Ratio (Y/D) 0.85 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion total Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 85.7 5.2 90.7 41.3 7.3 665.4 95.7 54.0 22.9 837.9 670.2 126.6 67 64 67 67 14 67 67 67 67 67 67 53 11. CYPRESS CREEK NEAR JANICE, MS Drainage area (km2) 135.15 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 2.72 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.73 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.49 Ratio (Y/D) 0.67 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 48 46 48 48 8 48 47 48 47 48 48 27 Mean N Concentration (neq/l) 44.4 5.3 47.0 93.9 2.1 52.9 32.2 93.5 11.6 189.7 41.0 2223.7 Standard Trend Deviation p 17.9 5.4 19.0 13.1 11.4 214.3 21.3 17.0 9.5 227.8 221.3 309.0 0.011 0.000 0.008 0.117 ID 0.482 0.627 0.256 0.256 0.627 0.176 0.726 Standard Trend Deviation p 28.7 4.5 29.8 22.4 1.7 22.4 13.2 25.7 4.8 36.7 32.2 3986.6 Slope (peq/l.yr) 1.3* 0.2** 1.7** O. . 5 ID -4.3 0.1 -0.5 0.2 -3.8 -7.1 3.1 Slope (neq/l.yr) 0.499 0.9 0.389 -0.2 0.759 0.3 0.243 0.7 ID ID 0.157 -1.1 0.759 -0.1 0.499 -0.7 1.000 0.0 0.243 -1.8 0.296 1.6 0.483 376.5

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453 12. CATALOOCHEE CREEK NEAR CATALOOCHEE, NC Drainage area (km2) 127.38 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 3.17 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.09 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.35 Ratio (Y/D) 0.32 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion total Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 25.6 9.6 33.9 20.3 1.3 48.1 26.7 49.0 13.9 137.6 80.2 169.1 61 54 61 62 25 62 62 62 62 62 62 32 13. BUFFALO RIVER NEAR FLAT WOODS, TN Drainage area (km2) 1157.28 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 21.34 Period of record 1963 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 1.16 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.85 Ratio (Y/D) 0 74 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 101 92 total 102 103 20 103 103 103 102 103 103 61 Mean N Concentration (peqJl) 84.2 16.2 100.6 50.4 2.5 642.2 149.0 52.8 19.6 865.2 700.5 83.3 Standard Trend Deviation p 13.7 5.6 16.0 9.6 1.2 13.5 9.3 8.5 5.9 23.3 20.6 201.3 0.011 O. .000 0.001 0.607 1.000 0.072 0.368 0.607 0.001 0.029 0.607 1.000 Standard Trend Deviation p 27.6 11.0 38.4 17.6 1.7 115.6 24.9 11.8 5.3 133.2 163.8 75.2 0.639 O.000 0.021 0.043 ID 0.269 0.014 0.065 0.007 0.623 0.075 0.447 Slope (peq/l.yr) 1.0* 0.4** 1.2** -0.4 O. . O 0.5* 0.2 0.2 0.4** 1.3* -0.2 24.1 Slope (ueq/l.yr) 0.3 1.3** 1.4* 0.9* ID -1.3 O. 9* 0.5* 0.3** -1 . 1 -2.6* -3.9

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454 14. WASHINGTON CREEK AT WINDIGO, MI Drainage area (km2) 34.17 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.45 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.48 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.84 Ratio (Y/D) 1.74 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean Standard N Concentration Deviation (peq/l) 128.2 54.7 7.5 4.5 135.6 55.3 112~4 77.1 1.6 0.9 930.5 288.9 455.9 147.3 146.0 64.5 14.2 5.3 1546.7 489.5 1233.4 439.8 53.5 52.2 82 81 82 82 13 83 83 83 83 83 83 54 15. POPPLE RIVER NEAR FENCE, WI Drainage area (km2) 359.87 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 3.42 Period of record 1965 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.59 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.79 Ratio (Y/D) 1.34 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Trend p Mean Standard N Concentration Deviation (Weq/l) 164.9 65.5 12.3 11.0 176.9 69.2 52.5 25.7 4.0 2.7 956.3 296.9 801.7 263.0 65.6 17.2 20.1 6.9 1850.3 557.0 1572.9 586.5 89.3 194.8 152 149 152 148 24 153 153 152 152 153 153 96 Slope (peq/l.yr) 0.533 0.8 0.002 -0.4** 0.610 0.3 0.283 0.5 ID ID 0.010 -5.7* 0.008 -3.7** 0.413 0.4 0.000 -0.6** 0.000 -9.5** 0.004 -7.8** 0.001 -6.8** Trend p Slope (lleq/l.yr) 0.096 -1.1* 0.000 -0.7** 0.016 -2.0* 0.000 1.2** 0.015 0.0* 0.075 -2.7* 0.546 -0.6 0.746 -0.1 0.007 0.2** 0.311 -2.6 0.445 -3.3 0.000 -13.5**

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455 16. KAWISHIWI RIVER NEAR ELY, MN Drainage area (km2) 655.02 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 6.00 Period of record 1966 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.43 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.43 Ratio (Y/D) 1.01 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean Standard Trend N Concentration Deviation p 62 56 62 58 8 62 62 62 62 62 62 27 (Heq/l) 103.6 6.2 109.2 19.7 3.9 170.1 119.0 47.6 10.1 346.9 186.5 98.7 17. NORTH FORK WHITEWATER RIVER NEAR ELBA, MN Drainage area (km2) 261.49 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 1.16 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.61 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.70 Ratio (Y/D) 1.15 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 147 146 147 147 25 147 147 147 144 147 147 97 23.7 8.1 24.1 12.1 5.9 26.6 16.4 11.6 4.1 36.6 38.4 82.9 0.586 0.192 0.384 0.226 ID 0.103 0.514 0.663 0.022 0.231 0.276 0.767 Mean Standard Trend N Concentration Deviation p (ueq/l) 335.1 172.4 506.3 216.7 7.9 3369.1 1944.0 216.3 58.5 5600.6 4918.0 9.2 69.7 90.9 136.0 97.1 11.8 608.8 357.0 59.2 37.3 924.2 860.7 9.9 Slope (peq/l.yr) -0.5 0.2 -0.4 0.5 ID 0.9 0.0 O . O -0.3* -0.8 -1.7 3.8 0.058 O.000 O .000 0.000 0.681 O. 000 O .000 O.000 O.000 O. 000 0.001 1.000 Slope (peq/l.yr) 1.8* 5.3** 8.5** 11.3** -6.3 24.1** 18.3** 8.2** 1 . 5* * 48.2** 28.8** 0.0

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460 26. RIO MORA NEAR TERRERO, NM Drainage area (km2) 137.73 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.76 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.43 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.43 Ratio (Y/D) 1.01 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 27. WET BOTTOM CREEK NEAR CHILDS, AZ Drainage area (km2) 94.24 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.37 Period of record 1968 - 1983 Mean Standard Trend N Concentration Deviation p (neq/l) 111 177.1 87 4.6 111 180.5 108 22.6 25 4.7 113 813.2 113 145.1 112 60.3 112 13.3 113 1036.9 113 806.5 62 22.3 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Ratio (Y/D) Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+R) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 54.6 3.4 54.9 17.4 2.3 170.7 38.1 20.5 5.0 212.4 174.6 28.2 0.50 0.37 0.74 Mean N Concentration {~l~n/l ~ 98 77 97 100 26 100 100 100 100 100 100 74 ~ ,_=, , 188.2 79.5 5.2 6.3 192.3 80.6 262.5 144.6 5.7 3.0 1367.1 632.4 663.9 318.9 873.3 444.6 31.9 10.1 2936.2 1364~3 2429.7 1255.9 21.6 21.7 0.083 O.000 0.039 0.064 0.180 0.103 0.142 0.240 O .000 0.963 0.024 0.819 Standard Deviation p Slope (peq/l.yr) 1.6* 0.2** 1.9* 0.4* 0.1 -2.4 0.7 0.3 0.3** -0.2 -4.1* -0.6 Trend Slope (peq/l.yr) 0.396 -0.8 0.033 0.2* 0.539 -1.3 0.004 4.9** 0.307 -791.2 0.687 -4.1 0.016 8.6* 0.074 11.5* 0.195 0.2 0.328 18.9 0.227 19.5 0.008 -2.4**

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461 28. MERCED RIVER AT HAPPY ISLES BRIDGE NEAR YOSEMITE, CA Drainage area (km2) 468.61 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 14.74 Period of record 1968 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.56 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.48 Ratio (Y/D) 0.86 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 31.6 4.6 34.5 92.9 3.8 118.4 19.6 89.0 10.2 239.4 105.0 363.4 65 62 65 71 42 72 68 71 72 72 ,72 57 Standard Trend Deviation p 19.8 5.4 21.2 60.1 3.2 44.3 10.8 34.6 3.6 87.4 47.9 408.9 29. HAYDEN CREEK BELOW NORTH FORK, NEAR HAYDEN LARK, ID Drainage area (km2) 56.96 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.71 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Ratio (Y/D) Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 0.679 0.571 0.756 0.211 0.531 0.030 0.257 0.445 0.038 0.014 0.850 0.010 0.45 0.40 0.89 Mean N Concentration (peq/l) 63.3 5.7 68.2 16.7 4.4 420.4 220.2 62.1 15.3 720.8 625.2 91.5 83 79 83 73 17 89 89 88 88 89 89 53 Standard Trend Deviation p 27.8 5.6 29.6 8.7 3.0 87.8 42.5 11.4 3.8 132.9 131.8 114.8 0.402 0.021 0.246 0.751 ID 0.645 0.624 0.232 0.063 0.205 0.908 0.376 Slope (peq/l.yr) -0.2 0.1 -0.3 0.8 0.1 1.1* 0.7 0.4 0.2* 2.7* 0.1 55.0** Slope (peq/l.yr) 0.9 0.3* 1.5 0.1 ID 0.4 -0.2 0.2 0.1* 1.6 -0.3 -5.6

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462 30. ANDREWS CREEK NEAR MAZAMA, WA Drainage area (km2) 57.22 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.91 Period of record 1972 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.32 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.32 Ratio (Y/D) 1.00 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Mean N Concentration (neq/l) 50.6 5.0 54.7 15.3 5.1 320.9 76.8 95.1 13.8 510.7 456.4 44.0 77 79 77 78 24 81 80 80 80 81 81 82 31. BIG JACKS CREEK NEAR BRUNEAU, ID Drainage area (km2) 655.02 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 0.25 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) Ratio (Y/D) Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion Standard Trend Deviation p 29.5 5.9 30.4 13.7 3.7 75.2 19.8 22.2 4.1 112.6 124.8 50.8 0.09 0.02 0.28 Mean N Concentration (neq/l) 67 144.2 58 14.2 67 156.6 67 124.4 11 5.7 67 550.8 67 227.8 67 457.8 67 101.5 67 1337.9 67 1078.9 37 22.8 0.052 0.014 0.079 0.010 0.516 0.611 0.163 0.827 0.337 0.582 0.472 0.591 Standard Trend Deviation p 38.5 17.0 40.9 32.7 2.9 95.3 44.8 89.2 18.4 219.3 235.1 51.0 Slope (peq/l.yr) -3.1* 0.2* -2.8* -1.2** -0.7 0.9 0.5 0.1 0.0 1.2 -1 .1 1.0 Slope (neq/l.yr) 0.057 1.7* 0.503 0.2 0.012 2.4* 0.000 3.2** ID ID 0.035 3.1* 0.328 0.8 0.381 0.7 0.035 -0.7* 0.198 5.5 0.027 8.4* 0.024 -4.9*

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463 32. MINAM RIVER AT MINAM, OR Drainage area (km2) 621.36 Mean discharge (m3/sec) 12.23 Period of record 1967 - 1983 Sulfate deposition as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.33 Basin sulfate yield as sulfur (g/m2.yr) 0.40 Ratio (Y/D) 1.22 Statistical Summary of Common Ion Records Ion Sulfate Nitrate, total Sulfate + nitrate, total Chloride Ammonia, total Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Major cations (Ca+Mg+Na+K) Alkalinity Hydrogen ion 99 85 93 88 21 103 103 103 103 103 103 61 Mean Standard N Concentration Deviation (peqJl) 42.8 34.4 4.2 5.3 43.3 37.0 17.7 11.0 3.7 1.6 287.8 64.7 118.4 35.4 96.5 20.7 27.8 7.4 530.9 117.8 451.5 110.9 62.3 49.0 Trend Slope (peq/l.yr) 0.000 3.5** 0.266 0.0 0.000 3.7** 0.487 -0.1 ID ID 0.330 0.8 0.361 -0.4 0.976 0.0 0.601 -0.0 0.361 1.1 0.005 -4.0** 0.076 6.8*

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464 TABLE C.3 Basin Characteristics of Bench-Mark Streams The following entries are descriptions of 16 basins of the U.S. Geological Survey Bench-Mark streams for which alkalinities are lower than 500 peq/L. Numbering of the basins is keyed to Table C.1 and Figure C.1. 1. Wild River, Gilead, Maine (References 1, 4, 5, 10, 11) Geology Predominantly Littleton formation paragneiss with quartz andesine biotite, Muscovite. Minor units: lime - silicate rocks, Concord quartz monzonite, mica schist - micaceous quartzite till at lower elevations. Some pyrite present. Soils Hermon, Lyman, Peru, Berkshire; (Lithic Haplorthods, Aquic Fragiorthods, Typic Haplorthods). Vegetation Hardwood forest on lower slopes with pockets of conifers. Land use/disturbance National forest, selective logging. 2. Esopus Creek, Shandaken, New York (References 4, 11, 22) Geology Sandstone bedrock, till covered (outwash and alluvium in valleys). Soils Arnot-Oquaga-Lackawanna, rock outcrop, Lithic Dystochrepts Typic Fragiochrepts, Typic Dystrochrepts. Vegetation Forested/hardwoods and conifers. Land use/disturbance Communities, scattered homes, sewage-treatment plant, reservoir on tributary. 3. McDonalds Branch, Lebanon State Forest, New Jersey (References 4, 11, 12, 17) Geology Deep quartz sands and gravels of Miocene/ . Pliocene age (Cohansey formation). Soils Quartzipsamments, Aquods, HiStosols.

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465 Vegetation Pine-oak forest -100 years old, pitch pine, lowland vegetation, cedar swamp, hardwood swamp (aggrading forest). roads. Land use/d~sturbance Fire 1963 (minor), a few unpaved 4. Young Womans Creek, Renovo, Pennsylvania (References 4, 11, 18, 21) Geology Sandstone/shale, some glacial outwash. Soils Mostly Dekalb series pH, 4-5; percent base saturation 4-20, average -12 (Ochrepts) Vegetation Hardwood forest. Land useidisturbance Secondary roads, fire roads, logging, few people. 5. Holiday Creek, Andersonville, 6, 11, 23) Virginia (References 4, Geology Wissahickon formation (oligoclase - biotite schist); minor area of hornblende gneiss. Soils Cecil Series (Typic Hapludults), Mantio Series (Lithic Dystrochrepts), Nason Series (Typic Hapludult), Tatum Series (Typic Hapludult) Vegetation Mostly hardwood forest, some recently planted pine. Land use/disturbance Selective cutting, roads. . 6. Scape Ore Swamp, Bishopville, South Carolina (References 4, 11, 19) Geology Unconsolidated sediments. Soils Ultisols dominant with some sandy Entisols (probably Psamments). Major soil series: Norfolk, Lakeland, Ruston, Gilead. Organic soils line the stream.

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466 Vegetation 50 percent pine-oak forest, 50 percent agriculture. Land use/disturbance Agricultural land use. 7. Upper Three Runs, New Ellenton, South Carolina (References 4, 11, 15) Geology Costal plain sediments, Barnwell sand (Eocene). Soils Ultisols and Entisols. Vegetation agriculture. Land use/disturbance 50 percent pine-oak forest, 50 percent Agricultural land use. 11. Cypress Creek, Janice, Mississippi (References 3, 4, 11, 14) Geology Coastal plain sands, gravels, silts. Pascagoula and Hattiesburg formations (Miocene). Soils Aquults, Udults, minor Aquents, Saprists. Vegetation Pine forests. Land use/disturbance Minimal agriculture, some timber harvesting; military uses - bombing, tanks, etc.; prescribed burning, herbicide application. 12. Cataloochee Creek, Cataloochee, North Carolina (References 4, 7, 11) Geology Sandstones, quartzite, phyllite (Longarm quartzite (may contain minor pyrite), Roaring Fork sandstone, Thunderhead sandstone). Soils No data. Vegetation Forest: mostly second growth oaks, hickory, tulip, poplar.

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467 Land use/disturbance Originally cleared for agriculture or timber harvesting, some mining; otherwise little information available. 16. Kawishiwi River, Ely, Minnesota (References 4, 11) Geology Gabbro, granite, greenstone. Soils No data. Vegetation Forested. Land use/disturbance Few roads, selective cutting. 19. Encampment River, Encampment, Wyoming (References 4, 11, 13) Geology Granite, metasedimentary rocks in the basin. Soils Orthents, Ochrepts, rock outcrop, minor Borolls. Vegetation Coniferous forest: lodgepole pine, spruce, fir; alpine at high elevation. Land use/disturbance Gauge moved, clear cutting, grazing (shift from sheep to cattle). 24. Kiamichi River, Big Cedar, Oklahoma (References 2, 4, 11, 20) Geology Shales, sandstones of Moyers and Tenmile Creek Formations (minor Wildhorse Mountain Formation). Soils Hapludults, Paleudults, Hapludalfs, Paleudalfs. Vegetation Hardwood forest, pine. Land use/disturbance Small agricultural holdings (corn, pasture); roadsl a few dwellings, logging Big Creek, Pollack, Louisiana (References 4 Geology Pleistocene sands and gravels. , 8, 11,

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468 Soils Udults, some Udalfs. Vegetation Pine forest Land use/disturbance logging. Small community, few roads, 28. Merced River, Yosemite, California (References 4, 9, 11) Geology Half-dome granodiorite. Soils No data. Vegetation Shrubs, some forest (fir, pine, sequoia), alpine. Land use/disturbance Heavy backpacking. 30. Andrews Creek, Mazama, Washington (References 4, 11) Geology Mostly granite rocks. Soils No data. Vegetation Fir, cedar, hemlock forest. ~ North Cascades primitive area, two hiking trails. 32. Minam River, Minam, Oregon (References 4, 11) Geology Predominantly basalt. Soils No data. Vegetation Ponderosa pine to 1700 m; lodgepole, white fir, larch above 1700 m. Land use/disturbance Most is wilderness area. Some water use for irrigation.

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469 REFERENCES 1. Billings, M. P., and K. Fowler-Billings. 1975. Geology of the Gorham Quadrangle, New Hampshire- Maine. New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development. Bull. no. 6, 120p. 2. Briggs, G. 1973. Geology of the eastern part of the Lynn Mountain syncline, LeFlore County, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geol. Survey Circular 75, 34p. Brown, G. F. 1944. Geology and ground water resources of the Camp Shelby area. Mississippi State Geol. Survey Bull. 58, 72p. 4. Cobb, E. D., and J. E. Biesecker. 1971. The national hydrologic Bench-Mark network. U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 460-D, 38p. Fisher, I. S. 1962. Petrological and structure of the Bethel Area, Maine. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 73:1395- 1420. 6 ~ Jonas, A. I. 1932. Kyanite in Virginia: geology of the Kyanite Belt of Virginia. Virginia Geol. Survey Bull. 38, 52p. 7. King, P. B. 1964. Geology of the central Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. U.S. Geol. Survey Report 349-C, 146p. 8. Maher, J. C. 1941. Groundwater resources of Grant and LaSalle parishes, Louisiana. Dept. of Minerals, Louisiana Geological Survey; Geol. Bull. No. 20. 91p. 9. Peck, D. L. 1980. Geologic map of the Merced Peak Quadrangle. U.S. Geological Survey. Geologic Map GQ-1531. 10. Rourke, R. V., J. A. Feruerda, and K. J. LaFlamme. 1977. The soils of Maine. Revision of Miscellaneous Pub. 676. Orono, Maine: University of Maine, LSA Experimental Station. 11. Smith, R.,~., and R. B. Alexander. 1983. Evidence for acid-precipitation-induced trends in stream chemistry at hydrologic Bench-Mark stations. U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 910, 12p. 12. Turner, R. S. 1983. Bio-geochemistry of trace elements in the McDonalds Branch Watershed, New Jersey Pine Barrens. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms. 13. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Medicine Bow National Forest, Encampment, Wyoming. Unpublished data.

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470 14. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Wiggins, Mississippi. Unpublished data. 15. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Aiken, South Carolina. Unpublished data. 16. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Colfax, Louisiana. Unpublished data. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1971. Soil survey of Burlington County, New Jersey, 120p. 18. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1966. Soil survey of Clinton County, Pennsylvania. 141p. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1959. Soil survey of Lee County, South Carolina. 85p. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1983. Soil survey of LeFlore County, Oklahoma, 209p. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1958. Soil survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania, 101p. 22. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1979. Soil survey of Ulster County, New York. 273p. 23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1966. Soils in relation to woodland use, Buckingham-Appomatox State Forest, 54p. and maps.