LITERATURE CITED

Aghamohammadi, S.Z., T. Morris, D.L. Stevens, and J. Thacker. 1992. Rapid screening for deletion mutations in the hprt gene using the polymerase chain reaction: X-ray and α-particle mutant spectra. Mutation Research 269:1-7.

Amundson, S.A., and H.L. Liber. 1991. A comparison of induced mutations at homologous alleles of the tk locus in human cells. Mutation Research 247:19-27.

Amundson, S.A., and H.L. Liber. 1992. A comparison of induced mutations at homologous alleles of the tk locus in human cells. II. Molecular analysis of mutants. Mutation Research 267:89-95.

Amundson, S.A., F. Xia, K. Wolfson, and H.L. Liber. 1993. Different cytotoxic and mutagenic responses induced by X-rays in two human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a single donor. Mutation Research 286:233-241.

Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1954. The age distribution of cancer and a multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis. British Journal of Cancer 8:1-12.

Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. British Journal of Cancer 11:161-169.

Asquith, J.C. 1977. The effect of dose fractionation on γ-radiation induced mutations in mammalian cells. Mutation Research 43:91-100.

Azzam, E.I., S.M. de-Toledo, G.P. Raaphorst, and R.E. Mitchel. 1996. Low-dose ionizing radiation decreases the frequency of neoplastic transformation to a level below the spontaneous rate in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Radiation Research 146/4:369-73.


Balasubramaniam, U., and N.L. Oleinick. 1995. Preferential crosslinking of matrix-attachment region (MAR)-containing DNA fragments to the isolated nuclear matrix by ionizing radiation. Biochemistry 34:12790-12802.

Bao, C-Y., A-H. Ma, H.H. Evans, M.F. Horng, J. Mencl, T.E. Hui, and W.D. Sedwick. 1995. Molecular analysis of HPRT gene mutations induced by a- and X-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells. Mutation Research 326:1-15.

Bauchinger, M., E. Schmid, H. Zitzelsberger, H. Braselmann, and U. Nahrstedt. 1993. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations analysed by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome-specific DNA probes and pancentromeric DNA probe. International Journal of Radiation Biology 64:179-184.

Beckman, K.B., and B.N. Ames. 1997. Oxidative decay of DNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:19633-19636.

Bender, M.A., H.G. Griggs, and J.S. Bedford. 1974. Mechanisms of chromosomal aberration production. III. Chemicals and ionizing radiation. Mutation Research 23:197-212.

Benedict, W.F., Y-KT. Fung, and A.L. Murphree. 1988. The gene responsible for the development of retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Cancer 62:1691-1694.

Benedict, W.F., H-J. Xu, S-X. Hu, and R. Takahashi. 1990. Role of the retinoblastoma gene in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85/4:988-993.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? LITERATURE CITED Aghamohammadi, S.Z., T. Morris, D.L. Stevens, and J. Thacker. 1992. Rapid screening for deletion mutations in the hprt gene using the polymerase chain reaction: X-ray and α-particle mutant spectra. Mutation Research 269:1-7. Amundson, S.A., and H.L. Liber. 1991. A comparison of induced mutations at homologous alleles of the tk locus in human cells. Mutation Research 247:19-27. Amundson, S.A., and H.L. Liber. 1992. A comparison of induced mutations at homologous alleles of the tk locus in human cells. II. Molecular analysis of mutants. Mutation Research 267:89-95. Amundson, S.A., F. Xia, K. Wolfson, and H.L. Liber. 1993. Different cytotoxic and mutagenic responses induced by X-rays in two human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a single donor. Mutation Research 286:233-241. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1954. The age distribution of cancer and a multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis. British Journal of Cancer 8:1-12. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. British Journal of Cancer 11:161-169. Asquith, J.C. 1977. The effect of dose fractionation on γ-radiation induced mutations in mammalian cells. Mutation Research 43:91-100. Azzam, E.I., S.M. de-Toledo, G.P. Raaphorst, and R.E. Mitchel. 1996. Low-dose ionizing radiation decreases the frequency of neoplastic transformation to a level below the spontaneous rate in C3H 10T1/2 cells. Radiation Research 146/4:369-73. Balasubramaniam, U., and N.L. Oleinick. 1995. Preferential crosslinking of matrix-attachment region (MAR)-containing DNA fragments to the isolated nuclear matrix by ionizing radiation. Biochemistry 34:12790-12802. Bao, C-Y., A-H. Ma, H.H. Evans, M.F. Horng, J. Mencl, T.E. Hui, and W.D. Sedwick. 1995. Molecular analysis of HPRT gene mutations induced by a- and X-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells. Mutation Research 326:1-15. Bauchinger, M., E. Schmid, H. Zitzelsberger, H. Braselmann, and U. Nahrstedt. 1993. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations analysed by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome-specific DNA probes and pancentromeric DNA probe. International Journal of Radiation Biology 64:179-184. Beckman, K.B., and B.N. Ames. 1997. Oxidative decay of DNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:19633-19636. Bender, M.A., H.G. Griggs, and J.S. Bedford. 1974. Mechanisms of chromosomal aberration production. III. Chemicals and ionizing radiation. Mutation Research 23:197-212. Benedict, W.F., Y-KT. Fung, and A.L. Murphree. 1988. The gene responsible for the development of retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Cancer 62:1691-1694. Benedict, W.F., H-J. Xu, S-X. Hu, and R. Takahashi. 1990. Role of the retinoblastoma gene in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85/4:988-993.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Biedermann, K.A., J. Sung, A.J. Giaccia, L.M. Tosto, and J.M. Brown. 1991. Scid mutation in mice coffers hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88:1394-1397. Billen, D. 1990. Spontaneous DNA damage and its significance for the ''negligible dose" controversy in radiation protection. Radiation Research 124:242-245. Birdwell, S.H., S.L. Hancock, A. Verghese, R.S. Cox, and R.T. Hoppe. 1997. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics 37(1):67-73. Boice, J.D., D. Preston, F.G. Davis, and R.R. Monson. 1991. Frequent chest x-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts . Radiation Research 125(2):214-222. Boice, J.D., E.B. Harvey, M. Blettner, M. Stovall, and J.T. Flannery. 1992. Cancer in the contralateral breast after radiotherapy for breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 326(12):781-785. Bowden, G.T., D. Jaffe, and A.L. Andrews. 1990. Biological and molecular aspects of radiation carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Radiation Research. 121:235-241. Box, H.C., H.G. Freund, E.E. Budzinski, J.C. Wallace, and A.E. Maccubbin. 1995. Free radical-induced double base lesions. Radiation Research 141:91-94. Brada, M., D. Ford, S. Ashley, J.M. Biles, S. Crowley, M. Mason, B. Rajan, and D. Traish. 1992. Risk of second brain tumour after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. British Medical Journal 304(6838):1343-1346. Bradley, W. E. C., A. Belouchi, and K. Messing. 1988. The aprt heterozygote/homozygote system for screening mutagenic agents allows detection of large deletions. Mutation Research 199:131-138. Breimer, L.H., J. Nalbantoglu, and M. Meuth. 1986. Structure and sequence of mutations induced by ionizing radiation at selectable loci in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Journal of Molecular Biology 192:669-674. Brenner, D.J. 1990. Track structure, lesion development, and cell survival. Radiation Research 124:S29-S37. Bryant, P.E. 1984. Enzymatic restriction of in situ mammalian cell DNA using Pvu II and Barn HI: Evidence for the double strand break origin of chromosomal aberrations. International Journal of Radiation Biology 46:57-65. Bryant, P.E. 1985. Enzymatic restriction of mammalian cell DNA: Evidence for double-strand breaks as potentially lethal lesions. International Journal of Radiation Biology 48:55-60. Bunch, R.T., D.A. Gewirtz, and L.R. Povirk. 1992. A combined alkaline unwinding/Southern blotting assay for measuring low levels of cellular DNA breakage within specific genomic regions. Oncology Research 3:7-15. Burch, P.R.J. 1960. Radiation carcinogenesis: a new hypothesis. Nature 185:135-142. Cardis, E., E.S. Gilbert, L. Carpenter, G. Howe, I. Kato, E.C. Lave, and B.K. Armstrong. 1994. Direct estimates of cancer mortality due to low doses of ionising radiation: an international study. IARC study group on cancer risk among nuclear industry workers. Lancet 344(8929): 1039-1043.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Cardis, E., E.S. Gilbert, L. Carpenter, G. Howe, I. Kato, B.K. Armstrong, V. Beral, G. Cowper, A. Douglas, J. Fix, S.A. Fry, J. Kaldor, C. Lave, L. Salmon, P.G. Smith, G.L. Voelz, and L.D. Wiggs. 1995. Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries. Radiation Research 142:117-132. Cavenee, W.K., T.P. Drija, R.A. Phillips, W.F. Benedict, R. Godbout, B.L. Gallic, A.L. Murphree, L.C. Strong, and R.L. White. 1983. Expression of recessive alleles by chromosomal mechanisms in retinoblastoma. Nature 305:779-784. Cavenee, W. K., M. F. Hansen, M. Nordenskjold, E. Kock, I. Maumenee, J. Squire, R. A. Phillips, and B. L. Gallie. 1985. Genetic origin of mutations predisposing to retinoblastoma. Science 228:501-503. Chadwick, K. H., and H. P. Leenhouts. 1981. The Molecular Theory of Radiation Biology. Springer Verlag. Berlin. Chadwick, K. H., and H. P. Leenhouts. 1995. Multi-step carcinogenesis and the implications for low dose radiation risk philosophy. Transactions of the Institute of Chemical Engineers Part B (ed. Sir Frederick Warner) 73:S18-S23. Chaudhry, M.A., and M. Weinfeld. 1995. The action of Escherichia coli endonuclease III on multiply damaged sites in DNA. Journal Molecular Biology 249:914-922. Chaudhry, M.A., Q. Jiang, M. Ricanati, M.F. Horng, and H.H. Evans. 1996. Characterization of multilocus lesions in human cells exposed to X radiation and radon. Radiation Research 145:31-38. Chen, C.W. 1993. Armitage-Doll two-stage model: implications and extension. Risk Analysis 13:273-279. Cheng, X., G. E. Pantelias, R. Okayasu, N. Cheong, and G. Iliakis. 1993. Mitosis promoting factor activity of inducer mitotic cells may affect radiation yield of interphase chromosome breaks in the premature chromosome condensation assay. Cancer Research 53:5592-5596. Chiu, S.M., N.L. Oleinick, L.R. Friedman, and P.J. Stambrook. 1982. Hypersensitivity of DNA in transcriptionally active chromatin to ionizing radiation. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 699:15-21. Chiu, S.M., L.R. Friedman, N.M. Sokany, L.Y. Xue, and N.L. Oleinick. 1986. Nuclear matrix proteins are crosslinked to transcriptionally active gene sequences by ionizing radiation. Radiation Research 107:24-38. Chiu, S.M., L.Y. Xue, L.R. Friedman, and N.L. Oleinick. 1992. Chromatin compaction and the efficiency of formation of DNA-protein crosslinks in γ-irradiated mammalian cells. Radiation Research 129:184-191. Chiu, S.M., L.Y. Xue, L.R. Friedman, and N.L. Oleinick. 1993. Copper-ion-mediated sensitization of nuclear matrix attachment sites to ionizing radiation. Biochemistry 32:6214-6219. Chin, S.M., L.Y. Xue, L.R. Friedman, and N.L. Oleinick. 1995. Differential dependence on chromatin structure for copper and iron ion induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Biochemistry 34:2653-2661. Coraforth, M.N. 1990. Testing the notion of the one-hit exchange. Radiation Research 121:21-27.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Cox, R., and W. K. Masson. 1979. Mutation and inactivation of cultured mammalian cells exposed to beams of accelerated heavy ions. III. Human diploid fibroblasts. International Journal of Radiation Biology 36:149-160. Cox, R., J. Thacker, and D. T. Goodhead. 1977. Inactivation and mutation of cultured mammalian cells by aluminium characteristic ultrasoft X-rays II. Dose-response of Chinese hamster and human diploid cells to aluminium X-rays and radiations of different LET. International Journal of Radiation Biology 31:561-576. Cox, R., C.F. Arlett, C.E. Land, E.J. Stanbridge, K. Sankaranarayanan, M.S. Sasaki, R. Charkraborty, A. Luz, and J. Mulvihill. Genetic susceptibility to cancer. Annals of the ICRP. (In press). Curtis, R.E., J.D. Boice, Jr., M. Stovall, L. Bernstein, R.S. Greenburg, J.T. Flannery, A.G. Schwartz, P. Weyer, W.C. Moloney, and R.N. Hoover. 1992. Risk of leukemia after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 326(26):1745-1751. Darby, S.C., G. Reeves, T. Key, R. Doll, and M. Stovall. 1994. Mortality in a cohort of women given x-ray therapy for metropathia haemorrhagica. International Journal of Cancer 56(6):793-801. Davis, F.G., J.D. Boice, Jr., Z. Hrubec, and R.R. Monson. 1989. Cancer mortality in a radiation-exposed cohort of Massachusetts tuberculosis patients. Cancer Research 49(21):6130-6136. Delongchamp, R.R., K. Mabuchi, Y. Yoshimoto, and D.L. Preston. 1997. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950-May 1992. Radiation Research 147(3):385-395. Demple, B., and L. Harrison. 1994. Repair of oxidative damage to DNA: Enzymology and biology. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 63:915-948. Dewey, W.C., S.C. Furman and H.H. Miller. 1970. Comparison of lethality and chromosomal damage induced by X-rays in synchronized Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Radiation Research 43:561-581. Dewey, W.C., H.H. Miller and D.B. Leeper. 1971. Chromosomal aberrations and mortality of X-irradiated mammalian cells; emphasis on repair. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 68:667-671. Dizdaroglu, M. 1992. Oxidative damage to DNA in mammalian chromatin. Mutation Research 275:331-342. Dizdaroglu M., M.L. Dirksen, H. Jiang, and J.H. Robbins. 1987. Ionizing-radiation-induced damage in the DNA of cultured human cells. Identification of 8, 5-cyclo-2-deoxyguanosine. Biochemistry Journal 241: 929-932. Dizdaroglu, M., G. Rao, B. Halliwell, and E. Gajewski. 1991a. Damage to the DNA bases in mammalian chromatin by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferric and cupric ions. Archives Biochemistry Biophysics 285:317-324. Dizdaroglu, M., Z. Nackerdien, B.-C. Chao, E. Gajewski, and G. Rao. 1991b. Chemical nature of in vivo DNA base damage in hydrogen peroxide-treated mammalian cells. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 285:388-390. Doll, R., and R. Wakeford. 1997. Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. British Journal of Radiology 70:130-139.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Dunn, J.M., R.A. Phillips, A.J. Becker and B.L. Gallie. 1988. Identification of germline and somatic mutations affecting the retinoblastoma gene. Science 241:1797-1800. Elia, M.C., and M.O. Bradley. 1992. Influence of chromatin structure on the induction of DNA double strand breaks by ionizing radiation. Cancer Research 52:1580-1586. Elkind, M.M., Y. Xing, J. Liu, K. Lindquist, N.E.A. Crompton, T.C. Patel, and S.G. Martin. 1994. Mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance of Chinese hamster cells containing a bacterial gpt gene: dose-rate dependence of137Cs γ-rays. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp79-84. Eng, C., F.P. Li, D.H. Abramson, R.M. Ellsworth, F.L. Wong, M.B. Goldman, J. Seddon, N. Tarbell, and J.D. Boice. 1993. Mortality from second tumors among long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 85:1121-1128. Evans, H.H., J. Mencl, M-F. Horng, M. Ricanati, C. Sanchez, and J. Hozier. 1986. Locus specificity in the mutability of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells: the role of multilocus lesions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 83:4379-4383. Evans, H.H., M. Nielsen, J. Mencl, M.F. Horng, and M. Ricanati. 1990. The effect of dose rate on X-radiation-induced mutant frequency and the nature of DNA lesions in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Radiation Research 122:316-325. Finnon, P., D.C. Lloyd, and A.A. Edwards. 1995. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes: applicability to biological dosimetry. International Journal of Radiation Biology 68:429-435. Fishel, R.A., and R.D. Kolodner. 1995. Identification of mismatch repair genes and their role in the development of cancer. Current Opinions Genetic Developments 5:382-395. Fisher, J. C. 1958. Multiple-mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Nature 181:651-652. Floyd, R.A. 1995. Measurement of oxidative stress in vivo. In: Davies, J.A., and F. Ursini, eds. The Oxygen Paradox. Cleaup University Press. Albany, New York. Pp. 89-103. Ford, J.M., and P.C. Hanawalt. 1995. Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts homozygous for p53 mutations are deficient in global DNA repair but exhibit normal transcription-coupled repair and enhanced UV resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92/19:8876-80. Ford, J.M., and P.C. Hanawalt. 1997. Expression of wild-type p53 is required for efficient global genomic nucleotide excision repair in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. Journal Biological Chemistry 272:28073-28080. Fujimori, A., A. Tchibana, and K. Tatsumi. 1992. Allelic losses at the aprt locus of human lymphoblastoid cells. Mutation Research 269:55-62. Furst, C.J., M. Lundell, and L.E. Holm. 1990. Tumors after radiotherapy for skin hemangioma in childhood. A case-control study. Acta Oncologica 29(5):557-562. Gajewski, E., G. Rao, Z. Nackerdien, and M. Dizdaroglu. 1990. Modification of DNA bases in mammalian chromatin by radiation-generated free radicals. Biochemistry 29:7876-7882.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Ganesh, A., P.S. North, and J. Thacker. 1993. Repair and mis-repair of site-specific DNA double-strand breaks by human cell extracts. Mutation Research 299:251-259. Gibbs, R. A., J. Camakaris, G. S. Hodgson, and R.F. Martin. 1987. Molecular Characterization of125I decay and X-ray-induced HPRT mutants in CHO cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 51:193-199. Gilbert, E.S. 1998. Accounting for errors in dose estimates used in studies of workers exposed to external radiation. Health Physics 74(1):22-29. Goodhead, D.T. 1989. The initial physical damage produced by ionizing radiations. International Journal of Radiation Biology 56:623-634. Goodhead, D.T., J. Thacker, and R. Cox. 1993. Effects of radiations of different qualities on cells: Molecular mechanisms of damage and repair. International Journal of Radiation Biology 63:543-556. Goodhead, D.T. 1994. Initial events in the cellular effects of ionizing radiations: clustered damage in DNA. International Journal of Radiation Biology 65:7-17. Gould, M.N., H. Watanabe, K. Kamiya, and K.H. Clifton. 1987. Modification of expression of the malignant phenotype in radiation-initiated cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 51:1081-1092. Gray, J.W., J. Lucas, O. Kallioniemi, A. Kallioniemi, W.L. Kuo, T. Straume, D. Tkachuk, T. Tenjin, H.U. Weier, and D. Pinkel. 1991. Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization in biological dosimetry and detection of disease-specific chromosome aberrations. Progress in Clinical Biology Research 372:399-411. Greinert, R., E. Detzler, B. Volkmer and D. Harder. 1995. Kinetics of formation of chromosome aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes: Analysis by premature chromosome condensation with delayed fusion. Radiation Research 144:190-197. Greinert, R., B. Volkmer, R. P. Virsik-Peuckert, and D. Harder. 1996. Comparative study of the repair kinetics of chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breaks in proliferating and quiescent CHO cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 70:33-43. Griem, M.L., R.A. Kleinerman, J.D. Boice, Jr., M. Stovall, D. Shefner, and J.H. Lubin. 1994. Cancer following radiotherapy for peptic ulcer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86(11):842-849. Griffin, C. S., D. L. Stevens, and J. R. K. Savage. 1996. Ultrasoft 1.5 keV Aluminum K X-rays are efficient producers of complex chromosome exchange aberrations as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Radiation Research 146:144-150. Grosovsky, A. J., J.G. de Boer, P.J. de Jong, E.A. Drobetsky, and B.W. Glickman. 1988. Base substitutions, frameshifts and small deletions constitute ionizing radiation-reduced point mutations in mammalian cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85:185-188. Grosovsky, A.J., K.K. Parks, C.R. Giver, and S.L. Nelson. 1996. Clonal analysis of delayed karyotypic abnormalities and gene mutations in radiation induced genetic instability. Molecular Cell Biology 16:6252-6262. Han, A., and M.M. Elkind. 1982. Enhanced transformation of mouse 10T1/2 cells by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate following exposure to X-rays or to fission-spectrum neutrons. Cancer Research 42(2):477-483.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Hanawalt, P.C. 1991. Heterogeneity of DNA repair at the gene level. Mutation Research 247/2:203-211. Hanawalt, P.C. 1994. Transcription-coupled repair and human disease. Science 266/5193:1957-1958. Hancock, S.L., M.A. Tucker, and R.T. Hoppe. 1993. Breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85(1):25-31. Harris, H. 1971. Cell fusion and the analysis of malignancy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Biology) 179:1-20. Hartley, K.O., D. Gell, G.C.M. Smith, H. Zhang, N. Divecha, M.A. Connelly, A. Admon, S.P. Lees-Miller, C.W. Anderson, and S.P. Jackson. 1995. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit: A relative of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the ataxia telangiectasia gene product. Cell 82:849-856. Harvey, A. N., and J. R. K. Savage. 1997. Investigating the nature of chromatid breaks produced by restriction endonucleases. International Journal of Radiation Biology 71:21-28. Hawkins, M.M., L.M.K. Wilson, H.S. Burton, M.H.N. Potok, D.L. Winter, H.B. Marsden, and M.A. Stoval. 1996. Radiotherapy, alkylating agents, and risk of bone cancer after childhood cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88:270-278. Hei, T. K., E. J. Hall, and C. A. Waldren. 1988. Mutation induction and relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in mammalian cells. Radiation Research 115:281-291. Heidenreich, W. 1996. On the parameters of the clonal expansion model. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 35:127-129. Heidenreich, W., P. Jacob, and H.G. Paretzke. 1997. Exact solutions of the clonal expansion model and their application to the incidence of solid tumors of the atomic bomb survivors. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:45-58. Heidenreich, W., E.G. Luebeck, and S.H. Moolgavkar. (in press). Some properties of the hazard function of the two-dimensional clonal expansion model . Risk Analysis. Hickman, A.W., R.J. Jaramillo, J.F. Lechner, and N.F. Johnson. 1994. Alpha particleinduced p53 protein expression in a rat lung epithelial cell strain. Cancer Research 54, 5797-5800. Hill, C.K., A. Hart, and M.M. Elkind. 1987. Promotion, dose rate, and repair processes in radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. Radiation Research 109(2):347-351. Hill, C.K., A. Han, and M.M. Elkind. 1989. Promoter-enhanced neoplastic transformation after gamma ray exposure at 10 cGy/day. Radiation Research 119(2):348-355. Hittelman, W.N., and P.N. Rao. 1974. Visualisation of X-ray induced chromosome damage in interphase cells. Mutation Research 23:251-258. Hittelman, W.N., D. Wlodek, V. Gregoire, and T.K. Pandita. 1994. The use of premature chromosome condensation and chromosome painting to understand chromosome exchange formation. In: Obe, G., and A.T. Natarajan, eds. Chromosomal Alterations: Origin and Significance. Springer Verlag. Berlin. pp57-63. Hoffman, D.A., J.E. Lonstein, M.M. Morin, W. Visscher, B.S. Harris 3rd, and J.D. Boice, Jr. 1989. Breast cancer in women with scoliosis exposed to multiple diagnostic x rays. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81 (17): 1307-1312.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Holley, W.R., and A. Chatterjee. 1996. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: Formation of short DNA fragments. 1. Theoretical modelling. Radiation Research 145:188-199. Holt, P.D. 1997. Consideration of tissue response in the application of the two-mutation model to radiation carcinogenesis. International Journal of Radiation Biology 71:203-213. Howe, G. 1995. Lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with lung cancer mortality in the Atomic Bomb survivors study. Radiation Research 142:295-304. Howe, G., and J. McLaughlin. 1996. Breast cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate dose rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy study and a comparison with breast cancer mortality in the Atomic bomb survivors study. Radiation Research 145:694-707. Hutchinson, F. 1985. Chemical changes induced in DNA by ionizing radiation. Progress Nucleic Acid Research Molecular Biology 32:115-154. Iliakis, G., D. Blocher, L. Metzger, and G. Pantelias. 1992. Comparison of DNA double-strand break rejoining as measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation and non-unwinding filter elution in irradiated plateau-phase CHO cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 59:927-939. Iliakis, G., R. Mehta, and M. Jackson. 1992. Level of DNA double-strand break rejoining in Chinese hamster xrs-5 cells is dose-dependent: implications for the mechanism of radiosensitivity. International Journal of Radiation Biology 61:315-321. Inskip, P.D., R.R. Monson, J.K. Wagoner, M. Stovall, F.G. Davis, R.A. Kleinerman, and J.D. Boice, Jr. 1990. Cancer mortality following radium treatment for uterine bleeding. Radiation Research 123(3):331-344. Inskip, P.D., R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, D.L. Cookfair, O. Hadjimichael, W.C. Moloney, R.R. Monson, W.D. Thompson, J. Wactawski-Wende, J.K. Wagoner, and J.D. Boice. 1993. Leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma after pelvic radiotherapy for benign disease. Radiation Research 135(1):108-124. ICRP (International Commissions on Radiological Protection and on Radiological Units and Measurements). 1963. Report of the RBE Committee to the International Commissions on Radiological Protection and on Radiological Units and Measurements. Health Physics. 9:357-386. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1991. 1990 recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. In: Annals of the ICRP, 21 nos. 1-3. Pergamon Press, Oxford. Jeggo, P.A., G.E. Taccioli, and S.P. Jackson. 1995. Menage a trois: double strand break repair, V(D)J recombination and DNA-PK. BioEssays 17:949-957. Jill, Y., T-A. Yie, and A.M. Carothers. 1995. Non-random deletions at the dihydrofolate reductase locus of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by α-particles simulating radon. Carcinogenesis 16:1981-1991. Jorgensen, T.J., and Y. Shiloh. 1996. The ATM gene and the Radiobiology of ataxia telangiectasia. International Journal of Radiation Biology 69:527-537.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Jostes, R.F., E.W. Fleck, T.L. Morgan, G.L. Stiegler, and F.T. Cross. 1994. Southern and PCR analysis of HPRT mutations induced by radon and its progeny. Radiation Research 137:371-379. Kadhim, M.A., D.A. MacDonald, D.T. Goodhead, S.A. Lorimore, S.J. Marsden, and E.G. Wright. 1992. Transmission of chromosomal instability after plutonium alpha-particle irradiation. Nature 355:738-740. Kai, M., T. Kusama, and Y. Aoki. 1993. Estimating radiation-induced cancer risk using MVK two stage model for carcinogenesis. In: Proceedings of Asia Congress on Radiation Protection. Beijing, China. Pp 143-146. Kellerer, A.M., and M. Barclay. 1992. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 41:273-281 Kellerer, A.M., and E. Nekolla. 1997. Neutron versus γ-ray risk estimates: Inferences from the cancer incidence and mortality data in Hiroshima. Radiation Environmental Biophysics 36: 73-83. Kellerer, A.M., and H.H. Rossi. 1974. The theory of dual radiation action. Current Topics in Radiation Research Quarterly 8:85-158. Kelsey, K.T., A. Memisoglu, D. Frenkel, and H.L. Liber. 1991. Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of x-rays are less susceptible to radiation induced mutagenesis. Mutation Research 263:197-201. Kennedy, A.R. 1985. Evidence that the first step leading to carcinogen induced malignant transformation is a high frequency, common event. In: Barrett, J.C., and R.W. Tennant, eds. Carcinogenesis: A Comprehensive Survey-Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis and Assays for Carcinogens. Raven Press. New York. Vol. 9:355-364. Kerber, R.A., J.E. Till, S.L. Simon, J.L. Lyon, D.C. Thomas, S. Preston-Martin, M.L. Rallison, R.D. Lloyd, and W.S. Stevens. 1993. A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2076-2082. Kleinerman, R.A., J.D. Boice, Jr., H.H. Storm, P. Sparen, A. Andersen, E. Pukkala, C.F. Lynch, B.F. Hankey, and J.T. Flannery. 1995. Second primary cancer after treatment for cervical cancer. An international cancer registries study. Cancer 76(3):442-452. Knehr, S., H. Zitzelsberger, H. Braselmann, and M. Bauchinger. 1994. Analysis for DNA-proportional distribution of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in various triple combinations of human chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. International Journal of Radiation Biology 65:683-690. Knehr, S., H. Zitzelsberger, H. Braselmann, U. Nahrstedt, and M. Bauchinger. 1996. Chromosome analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization: further indications for a non-DNA-proportional involvement of single chromosomes in radiation-induced structural aberrations. International Journal of Radiation Biology 70:385-392. Knudson, A.G., Jr. 1971. Mutation and cancer: Statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 68:820-823. Knudson, A.G., Jr. 1985. Hereditary cancer, oncogenes and antioncogenes. Cancer Research 45:1437-1443.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Knudson, A.G., Jr. 1991. Overview: genes that predispose to cancer. Mutation Research 247:185-190. Knudson, A.G., Jr., A. T. Meadows, W. W. Nichols, and R. Hill. 1976. Chromosomal deletion and retinoblastoma. New England Journal of Medicine 295:1120-1123. Koshurnikova, N., and N. Shilnikova. 1996. The Risk of Cancer Among Nuclear Workers at the "Mayak" Production Association: Preliminary Results of an Epidemiological Study. NCRP Proceedings 113(T2):113-122. Koshurnikova, N.A., N.S. Shilnikova, P.V. Okatenko, and V.V. Kreslov. 1997. The risk of cancer among nuclear workers at the "Mayak". Proceedings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 18:113-122. Kraemer, S., A. Ueno, D. Vannais, T. Hanks, M. Tavakolian, P. Craven, T. K. Hei, A. Kronenberg, and C. A. Waldren. 1994. Molecular analysis of mutant spectra in AL cells by high and low dose rates of137Cs γ-rays. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp29-34. Kronenberg A., and J.B. Little. 1989. Molecular characterization of thymidine kinase mutants of human cells induced by densely ionizing radiation. Mutation Research 211:215-224. Kronenberg, A., S. Gauny, K. Criddle, D. Vannais, A. Ueno, S. Kraemer, and C.A. Waldren. 1995. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 34:73-78. Land, C.E., Y. Shimosato, G. Saccomauno, S. Tokuoka, O. Auerbach, R. Tateishi, S.D. Greenberg, S. Nambu, D. Carter, S. Akiba, R.H. Keehn, P. Madigan, T. Mason, and M. Tokunaga. 1993. Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the pathology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radiation Research 134:234-43. Land, C.E., N. Hayakawa, S.G. Machado, Y. Yamada, M.C. Pike, S. Akiba, and M. Tokunaga. 1994a. A case-control interview study of breast cancer among Japanese A-bomb survivors. I. Main effects. Cancer Causes and Control 5(2): 157-165. Land, C.E., N. Hayakawa, S.G. Machado, Y. Yamada, M.C. Pike, S. Akiba, and M. Tokunaga. 1994b. A case-control interview study of breast cancer among Japanese A-bomb survivors . II. Interactions with radiation dose. Cancer Causes and Control 5:167-176. Land, C.E. 1995a. Studies of cancer and radiation dose among A-bomb survivors: the example of breast cancer. Journal of American Medical Association 274:402-407. Land, C.E. 1995b. Do gamma rays and alpha particles cause different types of lung cancer? A comparison between atomic bomb survivors and uranium miners. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 60:279-288. Land, C.E., T. Saku, Y. Hayashi, O. Takahara, H. Matsuura, S. Tokuoka, M. Tokunaga, and K. Mabuchi. 1996. Salivary gland tumor incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-87. Evaluation of radiation-related risk. Radiation Research 146:28-36. Lange, C.S., A. Cole, and J.Y. Ostashevsky. 1993. Radiation-induced damage in chromosomal DNA molecules: deduction of chromosomal DNA organization from

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? the hydrodynamic data used to measure DNA double-strand breaks and from stereo electron microscopic observations. Advances in Radiation Biology 17:261-421. Lea, D. E. 1946. Actions of Radiations on Living Cells. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Leadon, S.A., and P. Cooper. 1993. Preferential repair of ionizing-radiation induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences. USA 90:10499-10503. Leenhouts, H.P., and K.H. Chadwick. 1994a. A two-mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis: application to lung tumors in rodents and implications for risk evaluation. Journal of Radiological Protection 14:115-130. Leenhouts, H.P., and K.H. Chadwick. 1994b. Analysis of Radiation Induced Carcinogenesis using a Two-stage Carcinogenesis Model: Implications for Dose-effect Relationships. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 52:465-469. Leenhouts, H.P., and K.H. Chadwick. 1997. Use of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model for analysis of epidemiological data. In: Proceedings of the BNES International Conference "Health Effects of Low Dose Radiation: Challenges for the 21st Century". Stratford-upon Avon. (In Press). Li, C-Y., D.W. Yandell, and J.B. Little 1992. Molecular mechanisms of spontaneous and induced loss of heterozygosity in human cells in vitro. Somatic Cell Molecular Genetics 18:77-87. Liber, H.L., P.K. LeMotte, and J.B. Little. 1983. Toxicity and mutagenicity of X-rays and [125I]dUrd or [3H]TdR incorporated in the DNA of human lymphoblast cells. Mutation Research 111:387-404. Liber, H.L., K.M. Call, and J.B. Little. 1986. Molecular and biochemical analyses of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mutants in human lymphoblastoid cells. Mutation Research 178:143-153. Lindahl, T. 1993. Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA. Nature 362:709-715. Little, J.B. 1994. DNA damage, recombination and mutation. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp123-129. Little, J.B., H. Nagasawa, T. Pfenning, and H. Vetrovs. 1997. Radiation-induced genomic instability: delayed mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of X-rays and alpha particles. Radiation Research 148:299-307. Little, M.P. 1995. Are two mutations sufficient to cause cancer? Some generalizations of the two-mutation model of carcinogenesis of Moolgavkar, Venzon, and Knudson, and of the multistage model of Armitage and Doll. Biometrics 51:1278-1291. Little, M.P. 1996. Generalizations of the two-mutation and classical multi-stage models of carcinogenesis fitted to the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data. Journal of Radiological Protection 16:7-24. Little, M.P., and M.W. Charles. 1994. Cancer risk modelling using multistage models fitted to the Japanese bomb survivors. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis (K. H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H. P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker eds.) (Luxembourg, European Commission) pp.305-310.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Little, M.P., and C.R. Muirhead. 1996. Evidence for curvilinearity in the cancer incidence dose-response in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. International Journal of Radiation Biology 70/1:83-94. Little, M.P., M.M. Hawkins, M.W. Charles, and N.G. Hildreth. 1992. Fitting the Armitage-Doll model to radiation-exposed cohorts and implications for population cancer risks. Radiation Research 132:207-221. Little, M.P., M.M. Hawkins, M.W. Charles, and N.G. Hildreth. 1994. Corrections to the paper ''Fitting the Armitage-Doll model to radiation-exposed cohorts and implications for population cancer risks". Radiation Research 137:124-128. Ljungman, M. 1991. The influence of chromatin structure on the frequency of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: a study using nuclear and nucleoid monolayers. Radiation Research 126:58-64. Ljungman, M., and F. Zhang. 1996. Blockage of RNA polymerase as a possible trigger for UV light induced apotosis. Oncogene 13:823-831. Ljungman, M., S. Nyberg, J. Nygren, M. Ericksson, and G. Ahnstrom. 1991. DNA-bound proteins contribute much more than soluble intracellular compounds to the intrinsic protection against radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in human cells. Radiation Research 127:171-176. Lloyd, D.C., R.J. Purrott, G.W. Dolphin, D. Bolton, A.A. Edwards, and M.J. Corp. 1975. The relationship between chromosome aberrations and low LET radiation dose to human lymphocytes. International Journal of Radiation Biology 28:75-90. Lloyd, D.C., R. J. Purrott, G.W. Dolphin, and A.A. Edwards. 1976. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by neutron irradiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 29:169-182. Lloyd, D.C., A.A. Edwards, A. Leonard, G. Deknudt, A. Natarajan, G. Obe, F. Palitti, C. Tanzarella, and E.J. Tawn. 1988. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced in human blood lymphocytes by low doses of X-rays. International Journal of Radiation Biology 53:49-53. Lloyd, D.C., A.A. Edwards, A. Leonard, G.L. Deknudt, L. Verschaeve, A.T. Natarajan, F. Darroudi, G. Obe, F. Palitti, C. Tanzarella, and E.J. Tawn. 1992. Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes induced in vitro by very low doses of X-rays. International Journal of Radiation Biology 61:335-343. Lobrich, M., B. Rydberg, and P.K. Cooper. 1995. Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific NotI restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: Joining of correct and incorrect ends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:12050-12054. Lobrich, M, P.K. Cooper, and B. Rydberg. 1996. Non-random distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by particle irradiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 70:493-503. Loeb, L.A. 1991. Mutator phenotype may be required for multistage carcinogenesis. Cancer Research 51: 3075-3079. Loeb, L.A. 1997. Transient expression of a mutator phenotype in cancer cells. Science 277(5331):1449-1450. Lu, X., and D.P. Lane. 1993. Differential induction of transcriptionally active p53 following UV or ionizing radiation: defects in chromosome instability syndromes? Cell 75(4):765-778.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Lucas, J.N., F. Hill, C. Burk, T. Fester, and T. Straume. 1995. Dose-response curve for chromosome translocations measured in human lymphocytes exposed to60Co gamma rays. Health Physics 68:761-765. Lucas, J.N., F.H. Hill, D.E Burk, A.D. Lewis, A.K. Lucas, A. Chen, and T. Straume. 1997. Dose-response curve for chromosome translocations induced by low-dose-rate 137Cs gamma rays. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 71:279. Lutze, L., and R.A. Winegar. 1990. pHAZE: a shuttle vector system for the detection and analysis of ionizing radiation induced mutations. Mutation Research 245:305-410. Lutze, L., R.A. Winegar, R.F. Jostes, F.T. Cross, and J.E. Cleaver. 1992. Radiation induced deletions in human cells-role of nonhomologous strand rejoining. Cancer Research 52:5126-5129. Lutze, L., J.E. Cleaver, and R.A. Winegar. 1994. Factors affecting the frequency, size and location of ionizing-radiation-induced deletions in human cells. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp41-46. Malyapa, R.S., W.D. Wright, and J.L. Roti Roti. 1994. Radiosensitivity correlates with changes in DNA supercoiling and nucleoid protein content in cells of three Chinese hamster cell lines. Radiation Research 14:312-320. Malyapa, R.S., W.D. Wright, and J.L. Roti Roti. 1996. DNA supercoiling changes and nucleoid protein composition in a group of L5178Y cells of varying radiosensitivity. Radiation Research 145:239-242. Marta, G., and C.R. Boland. 1995. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the syndrome, the genes, and historical perspectives. Journal National Cancer Institute 87(15):1114-1125. Marshall, C.J. 1991. Tumor suppressor genes. Cell 64:313-326. Metting, N.F., S.T. Palayoor, R.M. Macklis, R.W. Atcher, H.L. Liber, and J.B. Little. 1992. Induction of mutations by bismuth-212 α-particles at two genetic loci in human B-lymphoblasts. Radiation Research 132:339-345. Metzger, L., and G. Iliakis. 1991. Kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair throughout the cell cycle as assayed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in CHO cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 59:1325-1339. Meuth, M. 1990. The structure of mutation in mammalian cells. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1032:1-17. Meuth, M., and N.P. Bhattacharyya. 1994. Molecular analysis of spontaneous and radiation-reduced genome instability in a human tumor cell line., In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp145-149. Meyn, M.S. 1995. Ataxia telangiectasia and cellular responses to DNA damage. Cancer Research 55:5991-6001. Miles, C., and M. Meuth. 1989. DNA sequence determination of gamma-radiationinduced mutations of the hamster aprt locus. Mutation Research 227:97-102.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Miles, C., G. Sargent, G. Phear, and M. Meuth. 1990. DNA sequence analysis of gamma radiation-induced deletions and insertions at the aprt locus of hamster cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 3:233-242. Milligan, J.R., J.Y. Ng, J.A. Aguilera, J.F. Ward, Y.W. Kow, S.S. Wallace, and R.P. Cunningham. 1996. Methylperoxyl radicals as intermediates in DNA damage by ionizing radiation. Radiation Research 146:436-443. Modrich, P. 1994. Misrnatch repair, genetic stability, and cancer. Science 266:1959-1960. Moolgavkar, S.H. 1983. Model for human carcinogenesis: action of environmental agents. Environmental Health Perspectives 50:285-291. Moolgavkar, S.H. 1992. Cancer models. In: Chadwick, K.H., G. Moschini, and M. N. Varma, eds. Biophysical Modelling of Radiation Effects. Hilger. Bristol. Pp 239-252. Moolgavkar, S.H. 1997. Cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombing. submitted to the proceedings of the BNES conference "Health effects of low dose radiation: challenges for the 21st century", Stratford, UK. (In Press). Moolgavkar, S.H. and A.G. Knudson, Jr. 1981. Mutation and cancer: a model for human carcinogenesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66:1037-1052. Moolgavkar, S.H., and G. Luebeck. 1990. A two-event model for carcinogenesis: Biological, mathematical and statistical considerations. Risk Analysis 10:323-341. Moolgavkar, S.H., and D.J. Venzon. 1979. Two-event models for carcinogenesis: incidence curves for childhood and adult tumors. Mathematical Biosciences 47:55-77. Moolgavkar, S.H., R.G. Stevens, and J.A.H. Lee. 1979. Effect of age on incidence of breast cancer in females. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 62:493-501. Moolgavkar, S.H., N.E. Day, and R.G. Stevens. 1980. Two-stage model for carcinogenesis: epidemiology of breast cancer in females. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 65:559-569. Moolgavkar, S.H., A. Dewanji, and D.J. Venzon. 1988. A stochastic two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. I. The hazard function and the probability of tumor. Risk Analysis 8(3):383-392. Moolgavkar, S.H., A. Dewanji, and G. Luebeck. 1989. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: reanalysis of the British doctors' data . Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81:415-420. Moolgavkar, S.H., F.T. Cross, G. Luebeck, and G.E. Dagle. 1990. A two-mutation model for radon induced lung tumors in rats. Radiation Research 121:28-37. Moolgavkar, S.H., G. Luebeck, D. Krewski, and J.M. Zielinski. 1993. Radon, cigarette smoke, and lung cancer: a reanalysis of the Colorado Plateau miners' data. Epidemiology 4:204-217. Moore, M.M., A. Amtower, G.H.S. Strauss, and C. Doerr. 1986. Genotoxicity of gamma irradiation in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Mutation Research 174:149-154. Morgan, W.F., J.P. Day, M.I. Kaplan, E.M. McGhee, and C.L. Limoli. 1996. Genomic instability induced by ionizing radiation. Radiation Research 146:247-258. Morris, T., and J. Thacker. 1993. Formation of large deletions by illegitimate recombination in the HPRT gene of primary human fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:1392-1396.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Morris, T., W. Masson, B. Singleton, and J. Thacker. 1993. Analysis of large deletions in the HPRT gene of primary human fibroblasts using the polymerase chain reaction. Somatic Cell Molecular Genetics 19:9-19. Nackerdien, Z., G. Rao, M.A. Cacciuttolo, E. Gajewski, and M. Dizdaroglu. 1991. Chemical nature of DNA-protein crosslinks produced in mammalian chromatin by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron or copper ions. Biochemistry 30:4873-4879. Nackerdien, Z., R. Olinski, and M. Dizdaroglu. 1992. DNA base damage in chromatin of γ-irradiated cultured human cells. Free Radical Research Communications 16:259-273. Nakano, M., E. Nakashima, D. J. Pawel, Y. Kodarna, and A. Awa. 1993. Frequency of reciprocal translocations and dicentrics induced in human blood lymphocytes by X-irradiation as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. International Journal of Radiation Biology 64:565-569. Natarajan, A.T., and G. Obe. 1984. Molecular mechanism involved in the production of chromosomal aberration, III. Restriction endonucleases. Chromosoma 90:120-127. Natarajan, A.T., R.C. Vyas, F. Darroudi, and S. Vermeulen. 1992. Frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosome translocations in human peripheral lymphocytes as detected by in situ hybridization using chromosome-specific DNA libraries. International Journal of Radiation Biology 61:199-203. NCI (National Cancer Institute). 1997. Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, Maryland. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1980. Influence of dose and its distribution in time on dose-effect relationships for low-LET radiation. NCRP Report No. 64. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, Maryland. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1987. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. NCRP Report No. 93. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, Maryland. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1989. Influence of radiation Quality (LET) on relative biological effectiveness. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, Maryland. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 1997. Uncertainties in fatal cancer risk estimates used in radiation protection. NCRP Report No. 126. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, Maryland. NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1985. Report of the National Institutes of Health ad hoe working group to develop radioepidemiological tables. NIH Publication No. 85-2748. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC. NRC (National Research Council). 1984. Assigned share for radiation as a cause of cancer: review of radioepidemiologic tables assigning probabilities of causation. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations, BEIR V. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Nelson, S.L., C.R. Giver, and A.J. Grosovsky. 1994. Spectrum of X-ray-induced mutations in the human hprt gene. Carcinogenesis 15:495-502. Nicklas, J.A., T.C. Hunter, J.P. O'Neill, and R.J. Albertini. 1991. Fine structure mapping of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene region of the human X-chromosome (Xq26). American Journal of Human Genetics 49(2):267-268. Nikjoo, H., P. O'Neill, D.T. Goodhead, and M. Terrissol. 1997. Computational modelling of low-energy electron-induced DNA damage by early physical and chemical events. International Journal of Radiation Biology 71:467-483. North, P. S., A. Ganesh, and J. Thacker. 1990. The rejoining of double strand breaks in DNA by human cell extracts. Nucleic Acids Research 18:6205-6210. Obe, G., and E-U. Winkel. 1985. The chromosome-breaking activity of the restriction endonuclease Alu I in CHO cells is independent of the S-phase of the cell cycle. Mutation Research 152:25-29. Okinaka, R.T., S.L. Anzick, and W.G. Thilly. 1994. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of specific exons of the HPRT gene from X-ray induced mutant populations. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, K. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker, Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp151-156. Olivieri, G., J. Bodycote, and S. Wolff. 1984. Adaptive response of human lymphocytes to low concentrations of radioactive thymidine. Science 223:594-597. Pantelias, G.E., and H.D. Maille. 1985. Direct analysis of radiation-reduced chromosome fragments and rings in unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes by means of the premature chromosome condensation technique. Mutation Research 149:67-72. Pierce, D.A., Y. Shimizu, D.L. Preston, M. Vaeth, and K. Mabuchi. 1996. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990. Radiation Research 146:1-27 Pimblott, S.M., and A. Mozumder. 1991. Structure of electron tracks in water. 2. Distribution of primary ionizations and excitations in water radiolysis. Journal of Physical Chemistry 95:7291-7300. Pinkel, D., T. Straume, and J.W. Gray. 1986. Cytogenetic analysis using quantitative, high-sensitivity, fluorescence hybridization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 83(9):2934-2938. Pohl-Rohling, J., P. Fischer, O. Haas, G. Obe, A.T. Natarajan, P.P. van-Buul, K.E. Buckton, N.O. Bianchi, M. Larramendy, M. Kucerova, Z. Polikova, A. Leonard, L. Fabry, F. Palitti, T. Sharma, W. Binder, R.N. Mukherjee, and U. Mukherjee. 1983. Effect of low dose acute X-irradiation on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. Mutation Research 110:71-82. Preston, D.L., J.H. Lubin, D.A. Pierce, and M.E. McConney. 1991. EPICURE. Generalized regression models for epidemiological data. Software from Hirosoft International Corporation, Seattle. Preston, D.L., S. Kusumi, M. Tomonaga, S. Izumi, E. Ron, A. Kuramoto, N. Kamada, H. Dohy, T. Matsuo, and T. Matsui. 1994. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Part III. Leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma 1950-1987. Radiation Research 137(2 Suppl):568-597. Prise, K.M., M. Folkard, H.C. Newman, and B.D. Michael. 1994. Effect of radiation quality on lesion complexity in cellular DNA. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66:537-542. RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation). 1994 and 1997. Data sets for leukemia and solid cancer mortality TR87DATA. dat (1994) and R12CANC.dat (1997). RERF, Hiroshima, Japan. Resnick, M.A. 1976. The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA: a model involving recombination. Journal of Theoretical Biology 59:97-106. Restrick, M.A., C. Bennett, N. Kouprina, V. Larionov, K. Lewis, and H. Tran. 1996. Recombinational repair of double-strand breaks: twenty years later. In: Hagen, U., D. Harder, H. Jung, and C. Streffer, eds. Radiation Research 1895-1995. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Radiation Research. Wurzburg. Volume 2:362-367. Revell, S.H. 1955. A new hypothesis for 'chromatid' changes. In: Bacq, Z.M., and P. Alexander, eds. Proceedings of a Biology Symposium. 1954. Liege. Butterworths. London. Pp.84-94. Revell, S.H. 1974. The breakage-and-reunion theory and the exchange theory for chromosomal aberrations induced by ionizing radiation: a short history. Advances in Radiation Biology 4:367-416. Ron, E., B. Modan, D. Preston, E. Alfandary, M. Stovall, and J.D. Boice, Jr. 1989. Thyroid neoplasia following low-dose radiation in childhood. Radiation Research 120(3):516-531. Ron, E., B. Modan, D. Preston, E. Alfandary, M. Stovall, and J.D. Boice, Jr. 1991. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck. Radiation Research 125(3)318-325. Ron, E., J.D. Boice, Jr., S. Hamburger, and M. Stovall. 1994. Mortality following radiation treatment for infertility of hormonal origin or amenorrhoea. International Journal of Epidemiology 23(6): 1165-1173. Ron, E., F.L. Wong, and K. Mabuchi. 1995a. Incidence of benign gastrointestinal tumors among atomic bomb survivors. American Journal of Epidemiology 142:68-75. Ron, E., J.H. Lubin, R.E. Shore, K. Mabuchi, B. Modan, L. Pottern, A.B. Schneider, M.A. Tucker, and J.D. Boice, Jr. 1995b. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiation Research 141:259-77. Roots, R., and S. Okada. 1972. Protection of DNA molecules of cultured mammalian cells from radiation-induced single strand scissions by various alcohols and SH compounds. International Journal of Radiation Biology 21:329-342. Roti Roti, J.L., W.D. Wright, and Y.C. Taylor. 1993. DNA loop structure and radiation response. Advances in Radiation Biology 17:227-259. Rydberg, B. 1996. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: Formation of short DNA fragments. 2. Experimental detection. Radiation Research 145:200-209. Sachs, R.K., A.M. Chen, and D.J. Brenner. 1997. Review: Proximity effects in the production of chromosome aberrations by ionizing radiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 71:1-19.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Samuel, A.H., and J.L. Magee. 1953. Theory of radiation chemistry. II. Track effects in radiolysis of water. Journal Chemistry and Physics 2:1080-1087. Sancar, A. 1995. Excision repair in mammalian cells. Journal Biological Chemistry 270:15915-15918. Sancar, A., and M.S. Tang. 1993. Nucleotide excision repair. Photochemistry and Photobiology 57(5):905-921 Sanderson, B.J.S., and A.A. Morley. 1986. Exposure of human lymphocytes to ionizing radiation reduces mutagenesis by subsequent ionizing radiation. Mutation Research 164:347-351. Saul, R.I., and B.N. Ames. 1986. Background levels of DNA damage in the population. Basic Life Science 38:529-535. Savage, J.R.K. 1989. The production of chromosomal structural changes by radiation: an update of Lea (1946), Chapter VI. British Journal of Radiology 62:507-520. Savage, J.R.K., and P. Simpson. 1994. On the scoring of FISH-painted chromosome exchange aberrations. Mutation Research 307:345-353. Savage, J.R.K., and J.D. Tucker. 1996. Nomenclature system for FISH-prainted chromosome aberrations. Mutation Research 366:145-152. Schmid, E., M. Bauchinger, and W. Mergenthaler. 1976. Analysis of the time relationship for the interaction of X-ray induced primary breaks in the formation of dicentric chromosomes. International Journal of Radiation Biology 30:339-346. Schmid, E., H. Zitzelsberger, H. Braselmann, J.W. Gray, and M. Bauchinger. 1992. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a triple combination of composite whole chromosome-specific DNA probes. International Journal of Radiation Biology 62:673-678. Schneider, A.B., E. Roll, J. Lubin, M. Stovall, and T.C. Gierlowski. 1993. Dose-response relationships for radiation-induced thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules: evidence for the prolonged effects of radiation on the thyroid. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 77(2):362-369. Selvanayagam, C.S., C.M. Davis, M.N Cornforth, and R.L. Ullrich. 1995. Latent expression of p53 mutations and radiation-induced mammary cancer. Cancer Research 55:3310-3317. Shadley, J.D. 1994. Chromosomal adaptive response in human lymphocytes. Radiation Research 138:S9-S12. Shore, R.E. 1990. Overview of radiation-induced skin cancer in humans. International Journal of Radiation Biology 57(4):809-827. Simon, S.L., J.E. Till, R.D. Lloyd, R.L. Kerber, D.C. Thomas, S. Preston-Martin, J.L. Lyon, and W. Stevens. 1995. The Utah leukemia case-control study: dosimetry methodology and results. Health Physics 68(4):460-471. Simpson, P., T. Morris, J. Savage, and J. Thacker. 1993. High-resolution cytogenetic analysis of X-ray induced mutations of the HPRT gene of primary human fibroblasts . Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 64:39-45. Simpson, P., T. Morris, J. Savage, and J. Thacker. 1994. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of X-ray-induced mutations of the HPRT gene of primary human fibroblasts. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp163-168. Sinclair, W.K., A. Bouville, and C.E. Land. 1997. Uncertainties in Fatal Cancer Risk Estimates Used in Radiation Protection. In: NCRP Report 126. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, Maryland. 112 Pp. Singh, B., and P.E. Bryant. 1991. Induction of mutations at the thymidine kinase locus in CHO cells by restriction endonucleases. Mutagenesis 6(3):219-223. Singleton, B., T. Morris, W.K. Masson, and J. Thacker. 1994. Molecular analysis of HPRT mutations induced by ionizing radiations in primary human fibroblasts. In: Molecular mechanisms in radiation mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (eds: K.H. Chadwick, R. Cox, H.P. Leenhouts, and J. Thacker) (Luxembourg, European Commission) EUR 15294 pp157-162. Skuse, G.R., and J.W. Ludlow. 1995. Tumor suppressor genes in disease and therapy. Lancet 345:902-906. Slijepcevic, P., and A.T. Natarajan. 1994a. Distribution of X-ray induced (32 chromatid damage among Chinese hamster chromosomes: influence of chromatid configuration. Mutation Research 323:113-119. Slijepcevic, P., and A.T. Natarajan. 1994b. Distribution of radiation-reduced G1 exchange and terminal deletion break-points in Chinese hamster chromosomes as detected by G-banding. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66:747-755. Stanbridge, E.J. 1976. Suppression of malignancy in human cells. Nature 260:17-20. Stevens, R.G., and S.H. Moolgavkar. 1979. Estimation of relative risk from vital data: smoking and cancers of the lung and bladder. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 63:1351-1357. Storm, H.H., M. Andersson, J.D. Boice, Jr., M. Blettner, M. Stovall, H.T. Mouridsen, P. Dombernowsky, C. Rose, A. Jacobsen, and M. Pedersen. 1992. Adjuvant radiotherapy and risk of contralateral breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84(16):1245-1250. Straume, T., and J.N. Lucas. 1993. A comparison of the yield of translocations and dicentrics measured using fluorescence in sire hybridization. International Journal of Radiation Biology 64:185-187. Straume, T., S.D. Egbert, W.A. Woolson, R.C. Finkel, P.W. Kubik, H.E. Grove, P. Sharma, and M. Hoshi. 1992. Neutron discrepancies in the DS86 dosimetry system. Health Physics 63:421-426. Swift, M., D. Morrell, R.B. Massey, and C.L. Chase. 1991. Incidence of cancer in 161 families affected by ataxia telangiectasia. New England Journal of Medicine 325:1831-1836. Szostak, J.W., T.L. Orr-Weaver, R.J. Rothstein, and F.W. Stahl. 1983. The double-strandbreak repair model for recombination. Cell 33:23-35. Taccioli, G.E., G. Rathbun, E. Oltz, T. Stamato, P.A. Jeggo, and F.W. Alt. 1993. Impairment of V(D)J recombination in double-strand break repair mutants. Science 260:207-210. Thacker, J. 1986. The nature of mutants induced by ionizing radiation in cultured hamster cells III. Molecular characterization of HPRT deficient mutations induced by gamma

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? rays or alpha-particles showing that the majority have deletions of all or part of the hprt gene. Mutation Research 160:267-275. Thacker, J. 1990. Molecular nature of ionizing radiation-induced mutations of native and introduced genes in mammalian cells. In: Wallace, S., and R. Painter, eds. Ionizing Radiation Damage to DNA: Molecular Aspects. Wiley/Liss. New York. Pp 221-229. Thacker, J. 1992. Radiation-induced mutation in mammalian cells at low doses and dose rates. Advances in Radiation Biology 16:77-124. Thacker, J. 1994. The study of responses to 'model' DNA breaks induced by restriction endonucleases in cells and cell-free systems: achievements and difficulties. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66(5):591-596. Thacker, J. 1996. Molecular mechanisms of radiation mutagenesis in normal and radiosensitive human cells. In: Hagen, U., D. Harder, H. Jung, and C. Streffer, eds. Radiation Research 1895-1995. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Radiation Research. Wurzburg. Volume 2:515-520. Thacker, J., and R. Cox. 1975. Mutation induction and inactivation in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Nature 258:429-431. Thacker, J., and A. Stretch. 1983. Recovery from lethal and mutagenic damage during postirradiation holding and low-dose-rate irradiations of cultured hamster cells. Radiation Research 96(2):380-392. Thacker, J., A. Stretch, and M.A. Stephens. 1979. Mutation and inactivation of cultured mammalian cells exposed to beams of accelerated ions II. Chinese hamster cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 36:137-148. Thacker, J., R.E. Wilkinson, and D.T. Goodhead. 1986. The induction of chromosome exchange aberrations by carbon ultrasoft X-rays in V79 hamster cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 49:645-656. Thompson, D.E., K. Mabuchi, E. Ron, M. Soda, M. Tokunaga, S. Ochikubo, S. Sugimoto, Z. Ikeda, M. Terasaki, S. Izumi, and D.L. Preston. 1994. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: solid tumors, 1958-87. Radiation Research 137: S17-S67. Thompson, L.H. 1996. Evidence that mammalian cells possess homologous recombinational repair pathways. Mutation Research 363:77-88. Tokunaga, M., C.E. Land, S. Tokuoka, I. Nishimori, M. Soda, and S. Akiba. 1994. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1985. Radiation Research 138:209-223. Tornaletti, S., and G.P. Pfeifer. 1994. Slow repair of pyrimidine dimers at p53 mutation hotspots in skin cancer Science. 263(5152): 1436-1438 Tucker, J.D., M.J. Ramsey, D.A. Lee, and J.L. Minkler. 1993. Validation of chromosome painting as a biodosimeter in human peripheral lymphocytes following acute exposure to ionizing radiation in vitro. International Journal of Radiation Biology 64(1):27-37. Tucker, M.A., G. D'Angio, J.D. Boice, L.C. Strong, F.P. Li, M. Stovall, B.J. Stone, D.M. Green, F. Lombardi, W. Newgton, R.N. Hoover, and J.F. Fraumeni. 1987. Bone sarcomas linked to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in children. New England Journal of Medicine 317:588-593.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Ullrich, R.L. and Storer, J.B. 1979. Influence of irradiation on the development of` neoplastic disease in mice, II. solid tumors. Radiation Research 80:317-324. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1988. Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, Report to the General Assembly, with annexes. United Nations. New York. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1993. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1994. Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR 1994 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. United Nations. New York. Venema, L.B., H.P. Leenhouts, G.M.H. Laheij and K.H. Chadwick. 1995. Use of a Two-Mutation Model for the Analysis of Bone Tumors by Internal Emitters: Implications for Low Dose Risk. In: van Kaick, G., A. Karaoglou and A.M. Kellerer, eds. Health Effects of Internally Deposited Radionuclides: Emphasis on Radium and Thorium. World Scientific. Singapore. Pp197-202. Virsik, R.P., C. Schafer, D. Harder, D.T. Goodhead, R. Cox and J. Thacker. 1980. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by ultrasoft A1k and Ck X-rays. International Journal of Radiation Biology 38:545-557. Vrieling, H., J.W.I.M. Simons, F. Arwert, A.T. Natarajan, and A.A. Van Zeeland. 1985. Mutations induced by X-rays at the HPRT locus in cultured Chinese hamster cells are mostly large deletions. Mutation Research 144(4):281-286. Waldren, C., L. Correll, M. A. Sognier, and T.T. Puck. 1986. Measurement of low levels of X-ray mutagenesis in relation to human disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 83:4839-4843. Wallace, S.S. 1994. DNA damages processed by base excision repair: biological consequences. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66:579-589. Ward, J.F. 1981. Some biochemical consequences of the spatial distribution of ionizing radiation produced free radicals. Radiation Research 86:185-195. Ward, J.F. 1988. DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: Identities, mechanism of formation, and repairability. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 35:95-125. Ward, J.F. 1994. The complexity of DNA damage-relevance to biological consequences. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66:427-432. Ward, J.F., W.F. Blakely, and E.I. Joner. 1985. Mammalian cells are not killed by DNA single strand breaks caused by hydroxyl radical from hydrogen peroxide. Radiation Research 103:383-393. Warters, R.L., and B.W. Lyons. 1992. Variation in radiation-induced formation of DNA double-strand breaks as a function of chromatin structure. Radiation Research 130:309-318. Weinberg, R.A. 1991. Tumor suppressor genes. Science 254:1138-1146. Weiss, H.A., S.C. Darby, and R. Doll. 1994. Cancer mortality following x-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. International Journal of Cancer 59(3):327-338. Weiss, H.A., S.C. Darby, T. Fearn, and R. Doll. 1995. Leukemia mortality after x-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. Radiation Research 142(1): 1-11.

OCR for page 51
Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations: Time for Reassessment? Whaley, J.M., and J.B. Little. 1990. Molecular characterization of hprt mutants induced by low-and high-LET radiation in human cells. Mutation Research 243:35-45. Whitmore, G.F., A.J. Varghese, and S. Gulyas. 1989. Cell cycle responses of two X-ray sensitive mutants defective in DNA repair. International Journal of Radiation Biology 56:657-665. Wiencke, J.K., V. Azfal, and S. Wolff. 1986. Evidence that the [3]thymidine-induced adaptive response of human lymphocytes to subsequent doses of X-rays involves the induction of a chromosomal repair mechanism. Mutagenesis 1:375-380. Wilson, C.T.R. 1923. Investigation on X-rays and β-rays by the cloud chamber method. Part II - β-rays. Proceedings of the Royal Society Ser. A 104:192-212. Winegar, R.A., and R.J. Preston. 1985. The induction of chromosome aberrations by restriction endonucleases that produce blunt-end or cohesive-end double-strand breaks. Mutation Research 197:141-149. Wolff, S. 1992. Low dose exposures and the induction of adaptation. In: Sugahara, T., L.A. Sagan, and T. Aoyama, eds. Low Dose Irradiation and Biological Defense Mechanisms. Excerpta Medica. Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo. pp. 21-28. Wong, F.L., E. Ron, T. Gierlowski, and A.B. Schneider. 1996. Benign thyroid tumors: general risk factors and their effects on radiation risk estimation. American Journal of Epidemiology 144(8):728-733. Wong, F.L., J.D. Boice, D.H. Abramson, R.E. Tarone, R.A. Kleinerman, M. Stovall, M.B. Goldman, J.M. Seddon, N. Tarbell, J.F. Fraumeni, and F.P. Li. 1997. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma: radiation dose and sarcoma risk. Journal of American Medical Association 278(15): 1262-1267. Xia, F., S.A. Amundson, J.A. Nickoloff, and H.L. Liber. 1994. Different capacities for recombination in closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different mutational responses. Molecular and Cellular Biology 14:5850-5857. Xia, F., X. Wang, Y-H. Wang, N.M. Tsang, D.W. Yandell, K.T. Kelsey, and H.L. Liber. 1995. Altered p53 status correlates with differences in sensitivity to radiation-induced mutation and apoptosis in two closely related human lymphoblast lines. Cancer Research 55:12-15. Xue, L.-Y., L.R. Friedman, N.L. Oleinick, and S.-M. Chiu. 1994. Induction of DNA damage in γ-irradiated nuclei stripped of nuclear protein classes: differential modulation of double-strand break and DNA-protein crosslink formation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66:11-21. Yandell, D.W., T.P. Dryja, and J.B. Little. 1986. Somatic mutations at a heterozygous antosomal locus in human cells occur more frequently by allele loss than by intragenic structural alterations. Somatic Cell Molecular Genetics 12:255-263. Zhen, W., C.M. Denault, K. Loviscek, S. Walter, L. Geng, and A.T. Vaughan. 1995. The relative radiosensitivity of TK6 and WI-L2-NS lymphoblastoid cells derived from a common source is primarily determined by their p53 mutational status. Mutation Research 346:82-92.