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memory and language sections to follow, shows that experience can work to alter the organization of the human brain.

A set of five papers deal with aspects of learning and memory. The first three concern brain plasticity consequent to various lengths of practice. In ref. 6 a few minutes of practice alters the brain areas involved in tasks as varied as generating words and learning a tactile maze. Although the brain areas differ in the two tasks, it is shown that the principle that some areas are active early in practice and then drop away while other areas increase is general to these very different situations. Ref. 7 reports that learning a simple sequence of movements involves both a short-term reduction in blood flow and a longer-term increase in the size of the brain representation of the learned sequence in comparison with unpracticed sequences. It is argued in ref. 21 that just such a form of brain plasticity underlies the distortions found in the so-called ventriloquism effect, where a visual event distorts the location of a simultaneous auditory input.

The section then turns to studies of short-term memory and priming. In the first paper (1), it is shown that a very specific system of anterior and posterior brain areas deals with verbal information, while paper 18 argues for common principles of short-term storage in quite different brains by showing that common anatomy is involved in both human imaging studies and monkey cellular studies. The final paper in this section (8) explores new uses of event-related fMRI to show both anatomy and time course in implicit and explicit learning.

The section on language includes four papers. The first three deal with reading words (2, 3, 22), while the last compares reading English with American Sign Language (4). While the heavy emphasis is on single word reading, it is argued that the brain separates the semantic analysis of individual words from areas concerned with integration of words into meaningful propositions (22). The next two papers explore the brain areas involved in processing semantic information by fMRI (2) and those involved in obtaining word sounds with PET (3). Finally, ref. 4 shows how brains of deaf signers dealing with their native language differ from those of hearing subjects reading English. In a nice analysis the paper uses hearing subjects who are native signers to separate those aspects of the findings due to knowledge of a special language and those that are due to adaptation of the brain to the lack of auditory input.

Welcome to the world of human brain mapping. We hope that you can have the same enjoyment in reading this collection as we had during the colloquium.

1. Smith, E.E., Jonides, J., Marshuetz, C. & Koeppe, R.A. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 876–882.

2. Gabrieli, J.D.E., Poldrack, R.A. & Desmond, J.E. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 906–913.

3. Fiez, J.A. & Petersen, S.E. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 914–921.

4. Neville, H.J., Bavelier, D., Corina, D., Rauschecker, J., Karni, A., Lalwani, A., Braun, A., Clark, V., Jezzard, P. & Turner, R. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 922–929.

5. Aguirre, G.K., Zarahan, E. & D’Esposito, M. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 839–846.

6. Petersen, S.E., van Mier, H., Fiez, J.A. & Raichle, M.E. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 853–860.

7. Karni, A., Meyer, C., Rey-Hipolito, C., Jezzard, P., Adams, M.M., Turner, R. & Ungerleider, L.G. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 861–868.

8. Buckner, R.L. & Koutsaal, W. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 891–898.

9. Polk, T.A. & Farah, M.J. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 847–852.

10. Corbetta, M. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 831–838.

11. Raichle, M.E. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 765–772.

12. Rosen, B.R., Buckner, R.L. & Dale, A.M. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 773–780.

13. Hillyard, S.A. & Anllo-Vento, L. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 781–787.

14. Van Essen, D.C., Drury, H.A., Joshi, S. & Miller, M.I. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 788–795.

15. Tootell, R.B.H., Hadjikhani, N.K., Vanduffel, W., Liu, A.K., Mendola, J.D., Sereno, M.I. & Dale, A.M. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 811–817.

16. Tootell, R.B.H., Mendola, J.D., Hadjikhani, N.K., Liu, A.K. & Dale, A.M. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 818–824.

17. Luck, S.J. & Ford, M.A. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 825–830.

18. Ungerleider, L.G., Courtney, S.M. & Haxby, J.V. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 883–890.

19. Friston, K.J. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 796–802.

20. McKeown, M.J., Jung, T.-P., Makeig, S., Brown, G., Kindermann, S.S., Lee, T.W. & Sejnowski, T.J. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 803–810.

21. Recanzone, G.H. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 869–875.

22. Posner, M.I. & Pavese, A. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 899–905.



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