COLLOQUIUM ON THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE, DARK MATTER, AND STRUCTURE FORMATION

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1998



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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation COLLOQUIUM ON THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE, DARK MATTER, AND STRUCTURE FORMATION NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1998

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Colloquium Series In 1991, the National Academy of Sciences inaugurated a series of scientific colloquia, five or six of which are scheduled each year under the guidance of the NAS Council’s Committee on Scientific Programs. Each colloquium addresses a scientific topic of broad and topical interest, cutting across two or more of the traditional disciplines. Typically two days long, colloquia are international in scope and bring together leading scientists in the field. Papers from colloquia are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation SPEAKERS The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering Irvine, California March 21–23, 1997 Jack Halpern (NAS Vice President) John Huchra (Harvard University) Robert Kirshner (Harvard University) Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Institution of Washington) I.Neill Reid (California Institute of Technology) Sandra Faber (UCO/Lick Observatory) Raul Jimenez (Royal Observatory in Edinburgh) James W.Truran (University of Chicago) Charles Steidel (California Institute of Technology) Cecilia Jarlskog (University of Stockholm) David Wilkinson (Princeton University) J.Richard Bond (Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics) David N.Schramm (University of Chicago) Jean Audouze (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris) David Tytler (University of California, San Diego) Lennox Cowie (University of Hawaii, Manoa) David N.Spergel (Princeton University) Bernard Sadoulet (University of California, Berkeley) Michael S.Turner (University of Chicago) John Ellis (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) Leslie Rosenberg (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) P.J.E.Peebles (Princeton University) Anthony Tyson (AT&T Bell Laboratories) Ramesh Narayan (Harvard University) Bohdan Paczynski (Princeton University) Nick Kaiser (University of Hawaii) Samuel Ting (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Richard Mushotzky (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) John Carlstrom (University of Chicago) Margaret Geller (Harvard University) Marc Davis (University of California, Berkeley) Neta Bahcall (Princeton University) J.P.Ostriker (Princeton University) Martin Rees (Cambridge University)

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation COMMITTEES The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering Irvine, California March 21–23, 1997 Organizing Committee David N.Schramm (University of Chicago)— Chairman P.J.E.Peebles (Princeton University)— Co-Chairman Alan Guth (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Martha Haynes (Cornell University) Bernard Sadoulet (University of California, Berkeley) Program Committee George Efstathiou (Oxford University) John Ellis (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Institution of Washington) Margaret Geller (Harvard University) Bernard Pagel (Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics) Martin Rees (Cambridge University) Katsuhiko Sato (University of Tokyo) Rashid Sunyaev (Moscow University) Joachim Trumper (Max-Plank Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik) David Wilkinson (Princeton University)

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation PROGRAM The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation Friday, March 21 Introduction NAS Vice President: Jack Halpern Session I Chair: John Huchra The Rubble Constant Using Type IA Supernovae Robert Kirshner Cosmological Parameters Wendy Freedman New Hipparcos Results I.Neill Reid Session II Chair: Sandra Faber Independent Age determinations:   A) Globular Clusters Raul Jimenez B) Nucleochronology James W.Truran Galaxies At High Redshifts Charles Steidel Saturday, March 22 Session III Chair: Cecilia Jarlskog The Microwave Background Anisotropies   A) Observations David Wilkinson B) Theory J.Richard Bond Light Element Synthesis David N.Schramm Session IV Chair: Jean Audouze D/H in QSO Absorption Systems   A) D/H—Low David R.Tytler B) D/H—High Lenniox L.Cowie Emergence of Structure Beyond z=5: a Probe of Cosmological Parameters Martin Rees Session V Chair: Bernard Sadoulet Dark Matter   A) Astrophysical Arguments Michael S.Turner B) Particle Components John Ellis C) New Experimental Results Leslie Rosenberg Galaxy Formation P.J.E.Peebles Session VI Chair: Anthony Tyson Gravitational Lensing Ramesh Narayan Microlensing Bohdan Paczynski Weak Lensing Nick Kaiser Sunday, March 23 Session VII Chair: Neta Bahcall X-ray Observations of Groups and Clusters Richard Mushotzky Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect John Carlstrom Large-Scale Structure Margaret Geller Large-Scale Flows Marc Davis Session VIII Chair: David N.Schramm Numerical Models J.P.Ostriker Finite Open Universes David N.Spergel

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation PARTICIPANTS The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering Irvine, California March 21–23, 1997 Tim Appenzeller (Science Magazine) Domingo Ricardo Artusa (Caltech) Barry Barish (Caltech) Karl van Bibber (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Robert Bradenberger (Brown) Roy Britten (Caltech) David Burstein (Arizona State) David Caldwell (UCSB) Geoffrey Chew (LBL) Jeff Childers (UCSB) Sarah Church (Caltech) David Cline (UCLA) Judith Cohen (Caltech) Arthur Davidsen (Johns Hopkins) David De Young (NOAO) S.G.Djorgovski (Caltech) Mark Dragovan (Chicago) Chris Fassnacht (Caltech) Graciela Gelmini (UCLA) Kim Griest (UCSD) Marc Kamionkowski (Columbia) Kenneth Kellerman (NRAO) Tomislav Kundic (Caltech) Andrew Lange (Caltech) Erik Leitch (Caltech) Alan Levy (UCSB) Yoram Lithwick (Caltech) Matt Malkan (UCLA) Leslie Maxfield (Berkeley) Peter Meinhold (UCSB) Thomas Nash (FNAL) Jerry Nelson (Santa Cruz) John Peoples (FNAL) Jeff Peterson (Carnegie Mellon) Byron Philour (Caltech) Andrew Phillips (UCO/Lick) Jean Quashnock (Chicago) George Raffelt (Max-Planck Munich) Anthony Readhead (Caltech) Sun Hong Rhie (Notre Dame) R.Michael Rich (UCLA) Steve Ruden (UC, Irvine) Vera Rubin (CIW) Humitaka Sato (Kyoto) Mike Seiffert (UCSB) Donald Shapero (NAS) Xiangdong Shi (UCSD) Luc Simard (UCO/Lick) Tammy Smecker-Hane (UC, Irvine) John Staren (UCSB) Charles Townes (UC, Berkeley) Virginia Trimble (UC, Irvine) Nicole Vogt (UCO/Lick) John Wilford (NY Times) Sarah Yost (Caltech)

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Table of Contents Papers from a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on The Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation     The age of the universe, dark matter, and structure formation David N.Schramm   1     Measuring cosmological parameters Wendy L.Freedman   2–7     Globular clusters, Hipparcos, and the age of the galaxy Neill Reid   8–12     Globular cluster ages Raul Jimenez   13–17     The age of the universe from nuclear chronometers J.W.Truran   18–21     Galaxies and large scale structure at high redshifts Charles C.Steidel   22–28     The microwave background anisotropies: Observations David Wilkinson   29–34     Cosmic microwave background theory J.Richard Bond   35–41     Primordial nucleosynthesis David N.Schramm   42–46     The universe at z > 5: When and how did the “dark age” end? Martin J.Rees   47–52     Particle components of dark matter John Ellis   53–58     Direct searches for dark matter: Recent results Leslie J.Rosenberg   59–66     Galaxy formation P.J.E.Peebles   67–71     X-ray emission from clusters and groups of galaxies Richard Mushotzky   72–77     Cosmic velocity fields and their interpretation Marc Davis   78–81     Measuring the topology of the universe Neil J.Cornish, David N.Spergel, and Glenn D.Starkman   82–84

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation David N.Schramm 1945–1997 David Schramm died in a plane crash while travelling to his beloved home in Aspen, Colorado. He organized this conference and many others. He loved science; his research work was strong and effective. He was a tireless advocate for support of research by younger people, and all who knew him will remember his exuberant enjoyment of life. These colloquium proceedings are devoted to his memory—a valued friend and colleague. —P.J.E.Peebles