Biographical Sketches of Speakers and Chairmen

David N.Schramm was Vice President for Research and the Louis Block Distinguished Service Professor of Physical Sciences and the University of Chicago and Professor in the Department of Physics, the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Conceptual Foundations of Science, the Enrico Fermi Institute and the College. He was also a founder of the astrophysics group at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois and was on the Board of Overseers of Fermilab. He earned a B.S. in physics from MIT in 1967 and a Ph.D. in physics from Caltech in 1971. His research has covered a variety of topics in theoretical astrophysics and cosmology including supernovae, dark matter, the age of the universe and the origin of elements. He was perhaps best known for his work in unifying the fields of cosmology, nuclear physics and elementary particle physics, including the cosmological prediction of the number of neutrinos and work relating light element abundances to cosmological density. He served on numerous scientific committees and boards, including the Executive Committee of the NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1986, to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994, the Hungarian Academy of Science in 1995, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1995. He was the recipient of the 1st Annual Robert J.Trumpler Award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1976, the 1978 Helen B.Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the 1980 Gravity Research Prize (with G.Steigman), the 1984 Richtmeyer Memorial Award of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Einstein Medal from Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary, and the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize for 1993 of the American Physical Society.

Jean Audouze is the Director of Research (exceptional class) at CNRS. He has previously served as Director of the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris (1978–1989) and as Scientific Advisor to President François Mitterrand for Research, Technology, Space and Environment (1989–1993). Audouze has been a Visiting Professor at Washington University, the University of Virginia, Caltech, UCLA, Berkeley and the University of Chicago. His research interests include nuclear astrophysics, cosmology, and the evolution of galaxies and stars.

Neta Bahcall is a Professor of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton University. Prior to this she served as Astronomer and Chief of the Science Program Selection Office and the General Observer Support Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute from 1983 to 1989. She received her B.Sc. from Hebrew University, Israel in 1963, her M.Sc. from Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel in 1965, and her Ph.D. from Tel-Aviv University, Israel in 1970. Her main research interests include the large-scale structure of the universe, clusters and superclusters of galaxies, the formation and evolution of galaxy systems, quasars and their environment, dark-matter and cosmology. Neta Bahcall is Vice President of the American Astronomical Society. Bahcall is a member of the AURA Board Member Representatives, the Space Telescope Institute Council, the Policy Opportunities Panel of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey for the 1990’s, and the Science Advisory Committee of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. She has served on the Committee for International Relations of the American Institute of Physics and various NASA and Scientific organizing committees, was a Councilor of the AAS, and was coordinator of the Space Telescope Advisory Committee and the HST Time Allocation Committee.

J.Richard Bond is the Director of, and a Professor in, the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Toronto, with cross appointments in the Departments of Astronomy and Physics. He has been a Fellow in the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research’s Cosmology Program since 1986. He was Acting Director in 1990–91, 1994–95, and returned to Canada at the inception of CITA in 1985 from Stanford (Assistant Professor 1981–85, Associate Professor 1985–87). He has also had appointments at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (Research Fellow 1982–83) and Berkeley (Lecturer and Research Fellow 1978–81), and he received his Ph.D. in Physics from Caltech in 1979. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and has been awarded the 1995 Beals Prize of the Canadian Astronomical Society, the 1989 Steacie Prize of the National Research Council of Canada, a 1988 E.W.R.Steacie Fellowship by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and an Alfred P.Sloan Fellowship in 1985. His research has been in cosmology, especially theories of cosmic structure formation, inflation, background radiation, cosmological gas dynamics and dark matter.

John Carlstrom is an Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Berkeley in 1988. His interests include studies of star formation and of large scale structure in the Universe. He pursues his research with new interferometric instrumentation and observing techniques. He played a leading role in the development of the CSO-JCMT submillimeter interferometer and in the cm—wave imaging system currently in use at the OVRO and BIMA mm—arrays. The cm—wave system has produced high quality images of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. He and M.Dragovan are now building the Very Compact Array to be sited at the South Pole. This array will be dedicated to imaging large scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

Lennox Cowie is a faculty member of the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Cowie was previously Chief of the Academic Affairs Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute and a faculty member at MIT and Johns Hopkins. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1976. He was the recipient of the 1985 Helen B.Warner Prize of the AAS for his work in the areas of galaxy formation, x-ray clusters and the interstellar and intergalactic medium. His research interests include extragalactic astronomy and cosmology.

Marc Davis is a Professor in Physics and Astronomy at Berkeley. He received his B.S. in physics from MIT in 1969, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in physics from Princeton in 1971 and 1973, respectively. Davis served as Chairman of the Department of Astronomy



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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation Biographical Sketches of Speakers and Chairmen David N.Schramm was Vice President for Research and the Louis Block Distinguished Service Professor of Physical Sciences and the University of Chicago and Professor in the Department of Physics, the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Conceptual Foundations of Science, the Enrico Fermi Institute and the College. He was also a founder of the astrophysics group at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois and was on the Board of Overseers of Fermilab. He earned a B.S. in physics from MIT in 1967 and a Ph.D. in physics from Caltech in 1971. His research has covered a variety of topics in theoretical astrophysics and cosmology including supernovae, dark matter, the age of the universe and the origin of elements. He was perhaps best known for his work in unifying the fields of cosmology, nuclear physics and elementary particle physics, including the cosmological prediction of the number of neutrinos and work relating light element abundances to cosmological density. He served on numerous scientific committees and boards, including the Executive Committee of the NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1986, to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994, the Hungarian Academy of Science in 1995, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1995. He was the recipient of the 1st Annual Robert J.Trumpler Award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1976, the 1978 Helen B.Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the 1980 Gravity Research Prize (with G.Steigman), the 1984 Richtmeyer Memorial Award of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Einstein Medal from Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary, and the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize for 1993 of the American Physical Society. Jean Audouze is the Director of Research (exceptional class) at CNRS. He has previously served as Director of the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris (1978–1989) and as Scientific Advisor to President François Mitterrand for Research, Technology, Space and Environment (1989–1993). Audouze has been a Visiting Professor at Washington University, the University of Virginia, Caltech, UCLA, Berkeley and the University of Chicago. His research interests include nuclear astrophysics, cosmology, and the evolution of galaxies and stars. Neta Bahcall is a Professor of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton University. Prior to this she served as Astronomer and Chief of the Science Program Selection Office and the General Observer Support Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute from 1983 to 1989. She received her B.Sc. from Hebrew University, Israel in 1963, her M.Sc. from Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel in 1965, and her Ph.D. from Tel-Aviv University, Israel in 1970. Her main research interests include the large-scale structure of the universe, clusters and superclusters of galaxies, the formation and evolution of galaxy systems, quasars and their environment, dark-matter and cosmology. Neta Bahcall is Vice President of the American Astronomical Society. Bahcall is a member of the AURA Board Member Representatives, the Space Telescope Institute Council, the Policy Opportunities Panel of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey for the 1990’s, and the Science Advisory Committee of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. She has served on the Committee for International Relations of the American Institute of Physics and various NASA and Scientific organizing committees, was a Councilor of the AAS, and was coordinator of the Space Telescope Advisory Committee and the HST Time Allocation Committee. J.Richard Bond is the Director of, and a Professor in, the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Toronto, with cross appointments in the Departments of Astronomy and Physics. He has been a Fellow in the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research’s Cosmology Program since 1986. He was Acting Director in 1990–91, 1994–95, and returned to Canada at the inception of CITA in 1985 from Stanford (Assistant Professor 1981–85, Associate Professor 1985–87). He has also had appointments at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (Research Fellow 1982–83) and Berkeley (Lecturer and Research Fellow 1978–81), and he received his Ph.D. in Physics from Caltech in 1979. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and has been awarded the 1995 Beals Prize of the Canadian Astronomical Society, the 1989 Steacie Prize of the National Research Council of Canada, a 1988 E.W.R.Steacie Fellowship by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and an Alfred P.Sloan Fellowship in 1985. His research has been in cosmology, especially theories of cosmic structure formation, inflation, background radiation, cosmological gas dynamics and dark matter. John Carlstrom is an Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Berkeley in 1988. His interests include studies of star formation and of large scale structure in the Universe. He pursues his research with new interferometric instrumentation and observing techniques. He played a leading role in the development of the CSO-JCMT submillimeter interferometer and in the cm—wave imaging system currently in use at the OVRO and BIMA mm—arrays. The cm—wave system has produced high quality images of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. He and M.Dragovan are now building the Very Compact Array to be sited at the South Pole. This array will be dedicated to imaging large scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background. Lennox Cowie is a faculty member of the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Cowie was previously Chief of the Academic Affairs Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute and a faculty member at MIT and Johns Hopkins. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1976. He was the recipient of the 1985 Helen B.Warner Prize of the AAS for his work in the areas of galaxy formation, x-ray clusters and the interstellar and intergalactic medium. His research interests include extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Marc Davis is a Professor in Physics and Astronomy at Berkeley. He received his B.S. in physics from MIT in 1969, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in physics from Princeton in 1971 and 1973, respectively. Davis served as Chairman of the Department of Astronomy

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation at Berkeley from 1988–1992, and was on the Astronomy faculty at Harvard from 1975–1981. He was an Alfred P.Sloan Fellow from 1975–1979, and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. He is the current Chairman of the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics and has served as Chairman of the NRC Panel on Cosmology, and was a member of the NRC Panel on Ground-Based Optical and Infrared Astronomy, as well as the Task Group on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics. His research interests are in physical cosmology, especially large scale structure in the Universe. Davis resides in Berkeley, California with his wife and two sons. John Ellis is a faculty member of the Theory Division at CERN. His research interests include: standard model phenomenology, looking beyond the standard model and trying to make sense of the superstring in particular, the interface between particle physics and cosmology and understanding why quantum mechanics are valid. Sandra Faber is a Professor of Astronomy at UC Santa Cruz and at the UCO/lick Observatory. A graduate of Swarthmore, she completed her Ph.D. at Harvard but did her dissertation at the CIW’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where she was greatly influenced by Vera Rubin. After finishing her degree in 1972, she came to Lick Observatory where she initially worked on accurate observations of nearby galaxies, but later moved toward the more theoretical interpretation of galaxy origins, the nature of the early universe and cosmology. Faber was deeply involved in the Hubble Space Telescope with the Wide Field Camera Team, and in the construction of the world’s largest telescope, the 400-inch Keck Telescope in Hawaii. Faber has also been very active in combating light pollution, which threatens many of our largest optical telescopes. Her honors include the Bok Prize of Harvard University in 1978, distinction by Science Digest as one of the best American Scientists under 40 in 1984, and the Dannie Heineman Prize of the AAS in 1986. She was elected to the NAS in 1985. Wendy Freedman is an astronomer at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Pasadena, California. A native of Toronto, Canada, she earned her doctorate in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of Toronto in 1984. She received a Carnegie Fellowship at the Observatories in 1984, and in 1987 joined the permanent faculty. Freedman’s current principal areas of interest are the extragalactic distance scale and observational cosmology, including the measurement of accurate distances to galaxies using Cepheid variables. She is also interested in the evolution of galaxies, particularly in the study of nearby galaxies where individual stars can be resolved and where the time evolution can be studied in detail. Freedman is one of the three principal investigators of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. She is a member of the NRC’s Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics and a member and this year’s chair of the Executive Board for the Center of Particle Astrophysics. Margaret J.Geller is a Professor of Astronomy at Harvard University and Senior Scientist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. She has made major contributions to the understanding of large-scale structure in the universe. Prof. Geller is a MacArthur Foundation Fellow and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Jack Halpern is the Vice President of the National Academy of Sciences. He is also the Louis Block Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Chicago. John Huchra is an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Professor of Astronomy at Harvard. He is also the Director of the F.L.Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. He was born and raised in New Jersey and obtained degrees in physics from MIT (1970) and astronomy from Caltech (1977). His primary field of study is observational cosmology— the study of the structure and evolution of the Universe. He also works on the properties of galaxies and quasars. Huchra is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and numerous professional societies. He was awarded the Aaronson Prize in 1992, and, with Margaret Geller, the American Association for the Advancement of Science Newcomb-Cleveland Award in 1989. In his spare time, he likes to hike, canoe and ski, and generally spend time on mountain tops. He lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, with his wife (a Professor at MIT) and young son. Cecilia Jarlskog is a Professor at the Institute of Physics of the University of Stockholm and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Raul Jimenez is currently a Research Fellow at the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. He received his B.Sc. in theoretical physics from the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, after which he moved to Copenhagen and obtained his Ph.D. in 1995 at the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita) working on alternative methods to determine globular cluster ages. His main research interests are the age of globular clusters, high redshift galaxies, galaxy formation and star formation and the evolution of large scale structure in the Universe. He is especially interested in the problem of galaxy formation and star formation at high redshift and on ways to date very precisely the ages of globular clusters. Nick Kaiser is the newest faculty member at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. Kaiser obtained his Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1982 from the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (supervisor M.J.Rees). He then held postdoctoral positions at Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara and Cambridge, before moving to Toronto in 1988 to take a faculty position at the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics supported by a fellowship from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. Nick has worked on a variety of cosmological topics including microwave background anisotropy; galaxy formation; bulk-flows and galaxy clustering. In the past few years he has concentrated his efforts on developing the theoretical and observational techniques for weak gravitational lensing as a probe of the dark matter distribution in the Universe. Robert Kirshner is a Professor of Astronomy at Harvard University and Chairman of Harvard’s Astronomy Department. He received his Ph.D. in Astronomy from Caltech in 1975, and was a postdoc at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. In 1976, Kirshner moved to the University of Michigan as an Assistant Professor. At Michigan, Kirshner was awarded an Alfred P.Sloan Fellowship and won the University’s Russel Prize for Research and Teaching. He was promoted to Professor in 1982 and became Department

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation Chair and the Director of the McGraw-Hill Observatory. In 1986, he moved to Harvard, where he has served as Astronomy Department chair since 1992. Author of over 180 technical publications in the fields of supenovae, galaxies, and large-scale structure, Kirshner is Principal Investigator for SINS: the Supernova Intensive Survey with the Hubble Space Telescope, and a member of the High-Z Redshift Team which seeks to employ supernovae to measure cosmological parameters. Kirshner is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Gemini International Board. Kirshner teaches a large class in Harvard’s Core Curriculum: “Matter in the Universe”, and has written popular articles for Sky & Telescope, Natural History, National Geographic, and Scientific American. Richard Mushotzky is an Astrophysicist at the Lab. for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Mushotzky’s prime research interests are in the determination of the mass and distribution of dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, in exploring the innermost regions of active galaxies, and in determining the origin and evolution of the metals in clusters and galaxies. The prime method of furthering these research goals has been through x-ray spectroscopy, imaging and timing studies of AGN, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. He has been involved in the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data from many of the x-ray spectroscopy and imaging experiments flown in the last 15 years (OSO-7, OSO-8, HEAO-1, HEAO-2, EXOSAT, Ginga, Rosat, BBXRT, ASCA and XTE). He is presently an interdisciplinary scientist on the AXAF science working group, an ASTRO-E science advisory group member and a mission scientist on the XMM Science Advisory Group. Dr. Mushotzky has supervised the thesis of six students and has worked closely with numerous other post-doctoral research fellows and graduate students. He has received the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement in 1983 and the GSFC Lindsay Award for Scientific Achievement in 1985. Ramesh Narayan is the Associate Director for Theoretical Astrophysics at the HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Professor of Astronomy at Harvard. He received his B.Sc. in physics from Madras University, and his Ph.D. in solid state physics from Bangalore University in 1979. Previous to joining the faculty at Harvard, Narayan held positions at the Raman Research Institute, Caltech and Arizona. He held a Presidential Young Investigator Award, from the NSF between 1989–1994. His research interests include accretion physics, black holes, gamma-ray bursts, gravitational lensing, image processing, radio pulsars, and turbulence, scattering and scintillation. Jeremiah P.Ostriker is a Professor of Astrophysical Sciences and also the Provost of Princeton University. He has served on the Board of Governors and various other committees of the National Academy of Sciences, and is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and an associate member of the Royal Astronomical Society. A theoretical astrophysicist, he has worked in a variety of fields but is now working primarily in the field of numerical cosmology. He recently published the monograph “Development of Large-Scale Structure in the Universe.” Bohdan Paczynski is the Lyman Spritzer Jr. Professor of Astrophysics at Princeton University. A native of Poland, Paczynski received his M.A., Ph.D. and a Decent Degree in Astronomy from Warsaw University (in 1962, 1964, and 1967, respectively). From 1962 to 1982, he held various positions at the Institute of Astronomy (now renamed the N.Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences). He became a Professor in the Department of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton in 1982, and earned his current named professorship in 1989. His research interests include the observation of variable stars, observational detection of gravitational microlensing of the galactic stars, and the theories of structure and evolution of single and binary stars, accretion disks, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational lensing. Paczynski was recently awarded the 1997 Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences. P.J.E.Peebles has been the Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton since 1984. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1962, and has since remained at the university as an instructor at various levels. He has been honored with the A.C.Morrison Award in National Science (N.Y. Academy of Sciences, 1977), the Eddington Medal (Royal Astronomical Society, 1981), the Heineman Prize (AAS, 1982) and Doctor of Sciences degrees from the University of Toronto (1986), the University of Chicago (1986) McMaster University (1989) and the University of Manitoba (1989). His research interests include cosmology, general relativity and galaxies. He continues to work on the related issues of the mass of the Universe and the origin of the galaxies that occupy the part we can observe. It is becoming increasingly difficult to see how the mass could be large enough to gravitationally reverse the present expansion and lead to a “big crunch.” Martin Rees has been the Royal Society Research Professor at Cambridge University, since 1992. He was formerly a Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge, and Director of the Institute of Astronomy. He has also been knighted by the Queen. I.Neill Reid received his B.Sc. in astronomy from the University of St. Andrews and completed his Ph.D. (on Stars of Low Luminosity) at Edinburgh University in 1982. After four years at Sussex University and the Royal Greenwich Observatory (when it was at Herstmonceux), he moved to Caltech where he continues to work on the Second Palomar Sky Survey. He is currently a member of the Space Interferometry Mission working group. His research interests center mainly on low-mass stars and Galactic structure, particularly the mass function close to the hydrogen-burning limit, binary star formation and the relations amongst the Galactic stellar populations. Leslie Rosenberg is an Assistant Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his B.S. at UCLA and his Ph.D. from Stanford University. He was a research associate at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Prior to joining the faculty at MIT, he was an Enrico Fermi Fellow and then a Senior Research Associate at the University of Chicago’s Enrico Fermi Institute. His research is focused on the intersection of particle physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. His main effort at present is a search for the axion, a hypothetical particle that might account for a most of the dark matter in the Universe. He has received on Outstanding Junior Investigator award from the Department of Energy and a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation for work in support of the axion search.

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Colloquium on the Age of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Structure Formation Bernard Sadoulet has been the Director of the Center for Particle Astrophysics, National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center at the University of California at Berkeley since 1988 and a full professor of physics at UC-Berkeley since 1985. He is currently on sabbatical. His main area of work is cosmology and the search for dark matter with cryogenic detectors. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search is currently taking data and promises to increase significantly the sensitivity of searches for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles which may constitute the dark matter in the Universe. A native of France, he earned his Doctorat d’Etat et Sciences Physiques (Ph.D. Thesis) from the University of Orsay, France in 1971. From 1966 to 1984 he was affiliated with CERN where, from 1976–1984 under the leadership of Carlo Rubbia, he worked on the development of the antiproton-proton collider idea and was responsible for the design and construction of the UAl Central Detector. His memberships include the Scientific Advisory Board of the Max Planck Institute für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, the Commission on Astrophysics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the Steering Committee of the “Interactive University Project” of Berkeley. David N.Spergel is a theoretical astrophysicist in the Department of Astrophysics at Princeton University. Spergel received his Ph.D. at Harvard in 1986 and then moved to the Institute for Advanced Study where he was a long-term member. He joined the Department of Astrophysics at Princeton University in 1988, where he is now a full Professor. His research interests include the physics of the early universe, dark matter, galaxy formation and the structure of our Galaxy. Much of his recent work has focused on the physics and analyses of microwave background fluctuations. He is a member of the MAP Science Working Group. MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe) is scheduled to be launched in Fall 2000: it will map the full microwave sky at angular resolution better than 0.25 degrees. Chuck Steidel is an Assistant Professor of Astronomy at Caltech. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy at Caltech in 1989, after which he spent four years in the astronomy department at U.C.Berkeley (three years as a Hubble Fellow). He then joined the Physics Department faculty at MIT in 1993, and moved to Caltech in the fall of 1995. His research interests are in the general area of observational cosmology, with particular emphasis on the formation and evolution of “normal” galaxies. Samuel Ting is a Professor of Physics at MIT. He received all of his degrees (and an honorary Sc.D. from the University of Michigan. He has also received an honorary Sc.D. from the Chinese University in Hong Kong, the University of Bologna, Columbia, and Moscow State University. He has been honored with numerous awards, including the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics. James W.Truran is a Professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and the College of the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Yale in 1965. Prior to coming to the University of Chicago, he was on the faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Truran is a theoretical astrophysicist whose research interests include nuclear astrophysics, stellar evolution, nova explosions and galactic chemical evolution. Michael S.Turner holds appointments at the University of Chicago as Professor of Physics and of Astronomy & Astrophysics and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory as Staff Scientist He received his B.S. in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1971 and his Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University in 1978. Turner’s research concerns the earliest history of the Universe and the application of elementary particle theory to cosmology, and at present is focused on testing the inflationary paradigm (that is, when he is not being joyfully defocused by Rachel, 5 and Joseph, 3). Turner has been honored with the Helen B.Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the Quantrell Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching at the University of Chicago, the Halley Lectureship at Oxford University, and the Julius Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society. Tony Tyson is a member of the Physics Division, Research at AT & T Bell Laboratories. David Tytler is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of California, San Diego. After earning his Ph.D. from the University of London in 1982, Tytler spent time at Caltech and Columbia. From 1987–1989, he was an Alfred P.Sloan Research Fellow in Physics. He joined the faculty at UCSD in 1989, and attained the title of full Professor in 1994. Tytler’s research interests include extragalactic astronomy, observational cosmology, quasar absorption line systems, the design of astronomical instrumentation, the search for planetary systems and statistical astronomy. David Wilkinson did his Ph.D. thesis with H.R.Crane measuring g—2 for the free electron, then went on to Princeton to do gravitation research with R.H.Dicke. At Dicke’s suggestion, they worked out the numbers and drafted a paper pointing out that laser ranging to corner reflectors on the moon could measure the Earth-Moon distance with an accuracy of a few cm. Thanks to NASA’s Apollo project this is now being done routinely. Another of Dicke’s good ideas was to look for the cosmic microwave background radiation that ought to be left over from a hot big bang. Wilkinson has pretty much spent the last 35 years measuring the spectrum and anisotropy of this radiation with many students and colleagues. Twenty-five years ago it became abundantly clear that a satellite experiment was needed to get the accuracy to look for interesting effects predicted by the theorists. The COBE satellite was invented by a small group brought together by John Mather. Launched in 1989, COBE was a remarkable success, verifying the hot big bang model and discovering anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Six years ago Wilkinson and his Princeton colleagues proposed a mission concept to NASA for following up on the COBE success with a satellite to measure the anisotropy at higher angular resolution. The current MAP satellite is a much improved version of that design.