1. Manipulations (field incubations) to look at specific responses of coupled soil and vegetation pools to changes in CO2, N deposition, or climate change. Most manipulations presently are taking place in temperate ecosystems; short-term manipulations may yield larger signals in the tropics, where turnover times for fast-cycling soil C are shorter.

  2. For larger scale responses over longer timescales, more work needs to be done along naturally occurring environmental gradients, especially those that may have been previously studied and may have archived soils for isotopic analysis.

Data presented here are the result of collaborative work with Eric Davidson, Dan Nepstad, Oliver Chadwick, Ron Amundson, Jennifer Harden, Alan Townsend, Margaret Torn, and Peter Vitousek. John Southon, Michaele Kashgarian, Jay Davis, and Ivan Proctor at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continue to provide valuable collaboration by measuring 14C. I thank the A. W. Mellon Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mission to Planet Earth Terrestrial Ecology Program for support.

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