10. Wigley, T. M. L. ( 1976 ) Nature (London) 264 , 629–631 .

11. Imbrie, J. & Imbrie, J. Z. ( 1980 ) Science 207 , 943–953 .

12. Savin, S. M. ( 1977 ) Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 5 , 319–355 .

13. Wolfe, J. A. ( 1978 ) Am. Sci. 66 , 694–703 .

14. Spicer, R. A. & Parrish, J. T. ( 1990 ) J. Geol. Soc. (London) 147 , 329–341 .

15. Barron, E. J. ( 1983 ) Earth Sci. Rev. 19 , 305–338 .

16. Arrhenius, G. ( 1952 ) Repts. Swed. Deep Sea Exped. 5 , 1–227 .

17. Hovan, S. A. , Rea, D. K. , Pisias, N. G. & Shackleton, N. J. ( 1989 ) Nature (London) 340 , 294–296 .

18. Shackleton, N. J. , Berger, A. & Peltier, W. R. ( 1990 ) Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Sci. 81 , 251–261 .

19. Tiedemann, R. , Sarnthein, M. &. Shackleton, N. J. ( 1994 ) Paleoceanography 9 , 619–638 .

20. Oppo, D. , Fairbanks, R. G. , Gordon, A. L. & Shackleton, N. J. ( 1990 ) Paleoceanography 5 , 43–54 .

21. Berger, W. H. ( 1973 ) J. Foraminiferal. Res. 3 , 187–195 .

22. Shackleton, N. J. ( 1977 ) in The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2in the Oceans , eds. Andersen, N. R. & Malahoff, A. ( Plenum , New York ), pp. 401–427 .

23. Curry, W. B. & Crowley, T. J. ( 1987 ) Paleoceanography 2 , 489– 517 .

24. Broecker, W. S. ( 1982 ) Prog. Oceanogr. 11 , 151–197 .

25. Sarmiento, J. L. & Toggweiler, J. R. ( 1984 ) Nature (London) 308 , 621–624 .

26. Martin, J. H. ( 1990 ) Paleoceanography 5 , 1–14 .

27. Boyle, E. A. ( 1988 ) J. Geophys. Res. 93 , 15701–15715 .

28. Ruddiman, W. F. , Raymo, M. & McIntyre, A. ( 1986 ) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 80 , 117–129 .

29. Park, J. & Maasch, K. ( 1993 ) J. Geophys. Res. 98 , 447–461 .

30. Muller, P. J. & Suess, E. ( 1979 ) Deep Sea Res. 26A , 1347–1362 .

31. Pedersen, T. F. ( 1983 ) Geology 11 , 16–19 .

32. Lyle, M. ( 1988 ) Nature (London) 335 , 529–532 .

33. Sarnthein, M. , Winn, K. , Duplessy, J.-C. & Fontugne, M. R. ( 1988 ) Paleoceanography 3 , 361–399 .

34. Berger, A. , Loutre, M. F. & Dehant, V. ( 1989 ) Paleoceanography 4 , 555–564 .

35. Berger, A. & Loutre, M. F. ( 1991 ) Quat. Sci. Rev. 10 , 297–317 .

36. Berger, A. , Loutre, M. F. & Laskar, J. ( 1992 ) Science 255 , 560–566 .

37. Bloemendal, J. & deMenocal, P. ( 1989 ) Nature (London) 342 , 897–900 .

38. deMenocal, P. B. ( 1995 ) Science 270 , 53–59 .

39. Herbert, T. D. & Mayer, L. A. ( 1991 ) J. Sediment. Petrol. 61 , 1089–1108 .

40. Cotillon, P. & Rio, M. ( 1984 ) Init. Rep. Deep Sea Drill. Proj. 77 , 339–378 .

41. Schwarzacher, W. ( 1987 ) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 84 , 22–26 .

42. Hilgen, F. J. ( 1991 ) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 107 , 349–368 .

43. Gale, A. S. ( 1995 ) in Orbital Forcing Timescales and Cyclostratigraphy , Geol. Soc. Special Publication 85 , eds. House, M. R. & Gale, A. S. ( Geol. Soc. , London ), pp. 177–197 .

44. Shackleton, N. J. , Curry, W. B. & Richter, C. ( 1995 ) Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog. Init. Repts. 154 , 1–1111 .

45. Mead, G. A. , Tauxe, L. & LaBreque, J. L. ( 1986 ) Paleoceanography 1 , 273–284 .

46. Moore, T. C., Jr. , Pisias, N. G. & Dunn, D. A. ( 1982 ) Mar. Geol. 46 , 217–233 .

47. Woodruff, F. & Savin, S. M. ( 1991 ) Paleoceanography 6 , 755–806 .

48. Herbert, T. D. & D’Hondt, S. L. ( 1990 ) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 99 , 263–275 .

49. Huang, Z. , Boyd, R. & O’Connell, S. ( 1992 ) Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog. Sci. Res. 122 , 259–277 .

50. Berggren, W. A. , Kent, D. V. , Swisher, C. C., III & Aubry, M.-P. ( 1995 ) in Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation , Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. Spec. Publ. 54 , eds. Berggren, W. A. , Kent, D. V. , Aubry, M.-P. & Hardenbol, J. ( Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral. , Tulsa, OK ), pp. 129–212 .

51. ten Kate, W. G. H. & Sprenger, A. ( 1993 ) Sediment. Geol. 87 , 69–101 .

52. Barron, E. J. , Arthur, M. A. & Kauffman, E. G. ( 1985 ) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 72 , 327–340 .

53. Barker, P. F. & Kennett, J. P. ( 1988 ) Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog. Init. Rep. 113 , 293–328 .

54. Herbert, T. D. , Stallard, R. F. & Fischer, A. G. ( 1986 ) Paleoceanography 1 , 495–506 .

55. Park, J. & Herbert, T . D . ( 1987 ) J. Geophys. Res. 92 , 14027– 14040 .

56. Premoli Silva, I. , Ripepe, M. & Tornhaghi, M. E. ( 1989 ) Terra Nova 1 , 443–448 .

57. Berger, W. H. ( 1970 ) Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 81 , 1385–1402 .

58. Rossignol-Strick, M. ( 1985 ) Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 49 , 237–263 .

59. Oglesby, R. & Park, J. ( 1989 ) J. Geophys. Res. 94 , 14793–14816 .

60. Lasaga, A. C. , Berner, R. A. & Garrels, R. M. ( 1985 ) in The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present , eds. Sundquist, E. T. & Broecker, W. S. ( American Geophysical Union , Washington, DC ), Monogr. 32 , pp. 397–411 .

61. Sarmiento, J. L. , Herbert, T. D. & Toggweiler, J. R. ( 1988 ) Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2 , 427–444 .



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement