Morgan, W.J. (1972a). Deep mantle convection plumes and plate motions, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 46, 203–213.

Morgan, W.J. (1972b). Plate motions and deep mantle convection, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 132, pp. 7–22.

Mullineaux, D.R., and D.W.Peterson (1974). Volcanic hazards on the island of Hawaii, U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 74–239, 61 pp.

Murton, B.J., and S.Shimaburuko (1974). Human adjustment to volcanic hazard in Puna District, Hawaii, in Natural Hazards, Local, National, and Global, G.F.White, ed., Oxford Univ. Press, New York, pp. 151–159.


Nakamura, K. (1974). Preliminary estimate of global volcanic production rate, in Utilization of Volcanic Energy, J.Colp and A.S.Furimoto, eds., U. of Hawaii and Sandia Corp., Hilo, Hawaii, pp. 273–286.


Oxburgh, E.R. (1971). Plate tectonics, in Understanding the Earth, J. G.Gass, P.J.Smith, and R.C.L.Wilson, eds., 2nd ed., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 263–285.


Ross, C.S., and R.L.Smith (1961). Ash-flow Tuffs—Their Origin, Geologic Relations, and Identification, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 366, 81 pp.


Shaw, H.R., and E.D.Jackson (1973). Linear island chains in the Pacific: Result of thermal plumes or gravitational anchors? J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8634–8652.

Sheets, P.D., and D.K.Grayson, eds. (1979). Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, Academic Press, New York, 644 pp.

Simkin, T., and L.Siebert (1984). Explosive eruptions in space and time: Duration, intervals, and a comparison of the world’s active volcanic belts, in Explosive Volcanism: Inception, Evolution, and Hazards, Geophysics Study Committee, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., pp. 110–121.

Simkin, T., L.Siebert, L.McClelland, D.Bridge, C.Newhall, and J. H.Latter (1981). Volcanoes of the World: A Regional Directory, Gazetteer, and Chronology of Volcanism During the Last 10,000 Years , Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa., 240 pp.

Smith, R.L. (1960a). Ash flows, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 71, 795–841.

Smith, R.L. (1960b). Zones and zonal variations in welded ash flows, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 354-F, pp. 149–159.

Smith, R.L. (1979). Ash-flow magmatism, in Ash-Flow Tuffs, C.E. Chapin and W.E.Elston, eds., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 180, pp. 5–27.

Smith, R.L., and R.A.Bailey (1966). The Bandelier Tuff: A study of ash-floweruption cycles from zoned magma chambers, Bull. Volcanol. 20, 83–104.

Smith, R.L., and R.A.Bailey (1968). Resurgent cauldrons, in Studies in Volcanology, R.R.Coats et al., eds., Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 116, pp. 613–662.

Smith, R.L., and R.G.Luedke (1984). Potentially active volcanic lineaments and loci in western conterminous United States, in Explosive Volcanism: Inception, Evolution, and Hazards, Geophysics Study Committee, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., pp. 47–66.

Sparks, R.S.J. (1976). Grain size variations in ignimbrites and implications for the transport of pyroclastic flows, Sedimentology 23, 147–188.

Stacey, F.D. (1969). Physics of the Earth, Wiley, New York, 324 pp.

Swanson, D.A., T.J.Casadevall, D.Dzurisin, S.D.Malone, C.G. Newhall, and C.S.Weaver (1983). Predicting eruptions at Mount St. Helens, June 1980 through December 1982, Science 221, 1369–1376.


Tazieff, H., and J.C.Sabroux, eds. (1983). Forecasting Volcanic Events, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 635 pp.

Tomblin, J., and E.M.Fournier d’Albe (in press). Principles of Volcanic Emergency Management, UNESCO, Paris.


UNESCO (1971). The Surveillance and Prediction of Volcanic Activity, UNESCO, Paris, 166 pp.


Vine, F.J. (1971). Sea-floor spreading, in Understanding the Earth, J. G.Bass, P.J.Smith, and R.C.L.Wilson, eds., 2nd ed., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 233–249.

Voight, B., H.Glicken, R.J.Janda, and P.M.Douglass (1981). Catastrophic rockslide avalanche of May 18, in The 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, P.W.Lipman and D.R.Mullineaux, eds., U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1250, pp. 347–377.


Warrick, R.A. (1975). Volcano Hazard in the United States: A Research Assessment, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Monograph NSF-RA-E-75–012, 144 pp.

Warrick, R.A. (1979). Volcanoes as hazards: An overview, in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, P.D.Sheets and D.K.Grayson, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 161–194.

Williams, H. (1941). Calderas and their origin, Calif. Univ. Dep. Geol. Sci. Bull. 25, 239–346.

Williams, H., and A.R.McBirney (1979). Volcanology, Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco, Calif., 397 pp.

Wilson, J.T. (1963). A possible origin of the Hawaiian Islands, Can. J. Phys. 41, 863–870.

Wohletz, K.H., and M.F.Sheridan (1979). A model of pyroclastic surge, in Ash-Flow Tuffs, C.E. Chapin and W.E. Elston, eds., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 180, pp. 177–194.

Wyllie, P.H. (1971). The Dynamic Earth, Wiley, New York, 416 pp.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement