Index

A

Active faulting/Faults

definition, 5, 51–52

detection methods, 50–51

geodetic indicators of, 53

geologic indicators of, 52

geomorphic indicators of, 52–53

in interplate regions, 49

in San Francisco Bay area, 157

in Transverse Ranges, 24

landform indicators of, 52

parameters for estimating earthquake magnitudes, 55

patterns of, 12

related to folding, 63–77

secondary ruptures along, 47–48

seismological indicators of, 53–54

societal implications of, 75–77

stratigraphic relations along, 10

surface rupture by, 47–48

sympathetic offsets on, 48

trenching across, 152

Active tectonics

alluvial river response to, 80–92

definition, 3, 5

evaluation techniques, 3, 9–12, 42, 137–139

forecasts, 3, 4, 11, 16

future concerns, 9

geodetic measurement of, 4, 10, 155–163

geomorphic analyses of, 4, 11

geomorphic evidence of, 81–85, 136–146

impact on effective use of rivers and canals, 85–92

impacts on society, 12–17

indicators of, 52–53, 81, 84–85, 137–140, 142

investigation via surficial earth processes, 136–146

process response models in, 141–146

rates of, 141–146

research priorities and actions, 17–19, 120, 148–152

seismological and paleoseismological research techniques in, 148–152

time period of analysis, 4, 9–10, 21

volcanism in context of, 232–233

see also Coastal tectonics;

Tectonic listings

Adirondack Dome, 31, 33, 39

Afterslip, 32, 165, 166, 171, 173–175

Alaska

crust deformation in, 45

Gulf of, 111–112, 119

seismic gaps near, 57

strandlines in, 115

uplift in, 37, 97, 115, 118–119

Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone, earthquakes along, 58

Alluvial fans, 139–140, 141

Alluvial rivers

drainage pattern disruptions, 81

response to active tectonics, 80–92

see also Channels

Amino acid racemization, 197, 199, 201, 206

Appalachian Mountains, uplift of, 37, 39

Arching, of Gulf Coastal Plain, 38

Ash, volcanic dating, 133, 134, 210

Asthenospheric bumps, 40

Australia, northeastern, character of coastline, 97

Avalanches, 235

B

Baja California, tectonic activity of, 21–22

Barbados, strandlines of, 100, 107

Basalt flows

dating by, 133–134

see also Lava flows

Basin and Range province, 127–129, 135, 190, 192, 211

Bay of Bothnia, character of, 98

Benioff-Wadati zone, 57–58

Beryllium-10 dating, 205, 212

Big Colewa Creek

channel profile of, 89

effect of Monroe Uplift on, 89–90

Boeuf River, channel profile of, 89

Bogue Homo Creek, effect of Wiggins Uplift on, 90–91

Boreholes, 51

Boso Peninsula, Japan, 200, 202

British Columbia Coast Mountains, uplift activity in, 26

C

Calderas, 36, 104–105, 234–235

California

active strike-slip faulting in, 141

active-tectonic realms of, 20–26

borderland, tectonic activity of, 23

Coast Ranges, tectonic activity of, 25

coastline displacement, 107

Gulf of, tectonic activity of, 21–22



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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics Index A Active faulting/Faults definition, 5, 51–52 detection methods, 50–51 geodetic indicators of, 53 geologic indicators of, 52 geomorphic indicators of, 52–53 in interplate regions, 49 in San Francisco Bay area, 157 in Transverse Ranges, 24 landform indicators of, 52 parameters for estimating earthquake magnitudes, 55 patterns of, 12 related to folding, 63–77 secondary ruptures along, 47–48 seismological indicators of, 53–54 societal implications of, 75–77 stratigraphic relations along, 10 surface rupture by, 47–48 sympathetic offsets on, 48 trenching across, 152 Active tectonics alluvial river response to, 80–92 definition, 3, 5 evaluation techniques, 3, 9–12, 42, 137–139 forecasts, 3, 4, 11, 16 future concerns, 9 geodetic measurement of, 4, 10, 155–163 geomorphic analyses of, 4, 11 geomorphic evidence of, 81–85, 136–146 impact on effective use of rivers and canals, 85–92 impacts on society, 12–17 indicators of, 52–53, 81, 84–85, 137–140, 142 investigation via surficial earth processes, 136–146 process response models in, 141–146 rates of, 141–146 research priorities and actions, 17–19, 120, 148–152 seismological and paleoseismological research techniques in, 148–152 time period of analysis, 4, 9–10, 21 volcanism in context of, 232–233 see also Coastal tectonics; Tectonic listings Adirondack Dome, 31, 33, 39 Afterslip, 32, 165, 166, 171, 173–175 Alaska crust deformation in, 45 Gulf of, 111–112, 119 seismic gaps near, 57 strandlines in, 115 uplift in, 37, 97, 115, 118–119 Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone, earthquakes along, 58 Alluvial fans, 139–140, 141 Alluvial rivers drainage pattern disruptions, 81 response to active tectonics, 80–92 see also Channels Amino acid racemization, 197, 199, 201, 206 Appalachian Mountains, uplift of, 37, 39 Arching, of Gulf Coastal Plain, 38 Ash, volcanic dating, 133, 134, 210 Asthenospheric bumps, 40 Australia, northeastern, character of coastline, 97 Avalanches, 235 B Baja California, tectonic activity of, 21–22 Barbados, strandlines of, 100, 107 Basalt flows dating by, 133–134 see also Lava flows Basin and Range province, 127–129, 135, 190, 192, 211 Bay of Bothnia, character of, 98 Benioff-Wadati zone, 57–58 Beryllium-10 dating, 205, 212 Big Colewa Creek channel profile of, 89 effect of Monroe Uplift on, 89–90 Boeuf River, channel profile of, 89 Bogue Homo Creek, effect of Wiggins Uplift on, 90–91 Boreholes, 51 Boso Peninsula, Japan, 200, 202 British Columbia Coast Mountains, uplift activity in, 26 C Calderas, 36, 104–105, 234–235 California active strike-slip faulting in, 141 active-tectonic realms of, 20–26 borderland, tectonic activity of, 23 Coast Ranges, tectonic activity of, 25 coastline displacement, 107 Gulf of, tectonic activity of, 21–22

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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics seismic monitoring network in, 159 strandlines, 96, 101, 108, 113–114 vertical displacements in, 7 see also Baja California Canals, impact of active tectonics on, 85, 92 Carbon-14, 56–57, 152, 197–202, 203, 213 Cascade Range, 26, 57 Channels classification of, 82 effect of uplift on, 90 modifications of, 81 pattern changes, 82–85 profile of, 134 source of morphologic changes in, 91 Chronology Pleistocene to Holocene, 146 see also Varve chronology Climate, effects of on geomorphic processes, 8–9, 37, 52, 84 Coastlines active-tectonic, 98 morphology and tectonic setting, 96–98 see also Strandlines Columbia River Basalt, radioactive waste disposal in, 248 Consequence assessment, 256–258 Cratons earthquakes in, 31 North American, 26 vertical motions of, 30–32 Creep, 48, 140, 151, 152, 165–166, 169, 171, 173–174, 185–187 Creepmeters, 7, 10, 53, 169 Crust dynamics, studies of, 11 extension patterns, 6, 21, 27 horizontal displacement of, 167–169 loadings, 36–37 lower, magma intrusion into, 40 movements in coastal areas, 104 shortening, 6, 27 vertical displacements of, 7, 103–107, 112, 169–171 see also Hot spots Crust deformation documentation of, 26–27 importance of studies on, 20–21 types, 5–6 Crustal blocks, see Plates D Dams, Auburn thin arch, 12–13, 14, 47, 215–216 Dating annual, 197 by basalt flows and volcanic ash deposits, 133, 134, 210 by deformation rate, 199 by deposition rate, 199 by fossils and artifacts, 200, 210 by geomorphic position and incision rate, 199 by historical records, 197, 198 by progressive landform modification, 199, 208 by rock and mineral weathering, 199, 206–207 by soil development, 197, 199, 207–208 by tektites, 200 carbon-14, 56–57, 152, 197–202, 203, 213 coastal area deformation, 203, 206 control of, 209 correlation methods, 209–210 cosmogenic isotope, 198, 205 desert environments, 207 episodes of faulting, 200 fault scarps, 189–193 fission-track, 197, 198, 204 glaciations, 207 landforms, 126 methods, 195–213 morphologic, of fault scarps, 181–193 paleoseismological techniques, 151 Pleistocene strandlines, 100–102 potassium-argon, 197, 198, 204 prehistoric faults, 156, 197, 200 problems, 200–202, 203, 212–213 Quaternary, 52, 135, 205 radiometric, 75, 102, 103, 118, 197–205 research priorities on, 17 sedimentary materials, 205 spanning different time intervals, 210–212 stable isotope, 200 uranium series, 197, 198, 202–204 uranium-trend, 197, 198, 205 Death Valley, alluvial fans in, 139 Deformation coseismic, 32, 41, 156 ground, measurement of, 239 interseismic, 34 permanent, 156, 160–162 postseismic, 32 preseismic, 32, 34 societal impact, 158–160 tectonic, 48 see also Crust deformation; Earthquakes; Faulting/Faults Deformation rates dating by, 199 irregularities in, 158–160 monitoring, 155–156 present-day, 156–158 Dendrochronology, 142, 197, 198, 202 Desert environments, dating, 207 Disaster preparedness, advances in, 16–17 Displacements glacio-isostatic, 104–106 ground, during Fort Tejon earthquake, 25 horizontal, 167–169 per event, 217 tectonic, 106–107 vertical, 7, 48, 103–107, 112–115, 151, 169–171 see also Fault displacements Distributed shear, 41 E Earthquakes Alaskan (1964), 7, 48, 49, 64, 111–112, 118–119, 171 along San Andreas Fault, 140–141 belts, 30–31 Borah Peak, Idaho (1983), 7, 13, 15, 33, 204, 222–224 Borrego Mountain (1968), 48, 144 caused by quarrying, 67 Charleston, South Carolina (1886), 31, 34, 35, 50, 57, 97, 150 Coalinga (1983), 25, 48, 72–73, 76, 160, 166 countermeasures, 15–17 deformation cycle, 156 deformations resulting from, 32–35, 149, 155–158 differences in, 149 Dixie Valley, Nevada (1954), 32, 33, 49, 51, 57, 191 El Asnam, Algeria (1980), 48, 67, 69, 72, 152, 218–219 elapsed time of, 217 Fort Tejon (1857), 25 Ganges flood plain, 64 generation process diagram, 196 ground displacement during, 25 Guatemalan (1976), 48–49 hazards, 14, 24, 45–60, 226–228 Hebgen Lake, Montana (1959), 33 Himalayan, 64 historical records of, 10, 45–46 Homestead Valley (1979), 166 identification of, 150 Imperial Valley (1979), 171 in cratons, 31 in Upper Indus Basin, 92 Inangahua, New Zealand (1968), 67, 171 intraplate, 32–33, 46, 116 Kanto (1703, 1923), 116–117 Lompoc (1981), 75–76 magnitude, 33, 35, 49, 54, 55, 216 maximum credible and maximum probable, 215–216 mechanics of minor movements, 165 Murchison (1929), 171 Nankai (1946), 109, 161–162 Nankaido (1707), 117 Napier (1931), 171 New Madrid (1811–1812), 14, 16, 31, 35, 50, 59, 85, 87, 150 Niigata, Japan (1964), 49 Oroville, California (1975), 33 Parkfield (1966), 25 Pleasant Valley (1915), 191 prehistoric, 11, 149–152 recurrence, 9, 15, 56–57, 73, 85, 95, 114, 115–120, 136–137, 142, 144–145, 161, 200, 217, 224–226

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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics San Fernando (1971), 24, 48, 138, 167, 171 San Francisco (1906), 12, 156, 157 secondary effects of, 48–49 size of intraplate, 50 size relation to fault rupture parameters, 45–46, 54–55 subduction zone, 58 Tabas-e-Golshan, Iran (1978), 48 Valentine, Texas (1931), 33, 34 West Yellowstone (1959), 184, 188, 191 Yellowstone Park, Wyoming (1975), 33 see also Microearthquakes; Paleoseismology; Predictions Elastic rebound theory, 156 Electron spin resonance, 197, 198, 204–205 Embayments, geometry of, 130–131 En echelon anticlines, 72 Engineering projects, cancellations, 12–14, 47, 215–216 Epeirogeny, 5–6, 30–32, 37–42 Erosion cycle of, 126 of fault scarps, 152 stream valley, 128 Escarpments drainage divide, 130 profiles of, 131 see also Fault scarps; Scarps F Fault displacements frequency of occurrence, 5 lateral, 7 measurement, 10 relationship between earthquake magnitude and, 55 vertical component of, 113–114 Fault scarps erosion of, 152 flexural-slip, 68 generation of, 129–131 gravitational effects on, 9 hypothetical uplift history of, 126 identification of, 150 in alluvium, 127 Late Quaternary, 48 mapping, 55 morphologic dating and modeling degradation of, 181–193 morphology of, 11, 142–144 Reelfoot Lake, 46 simple, 189–193 Faulting/Faults and Fault systems and zones activity rates of, 54 Alpine, 63, 149 bending moment, 68–69, 72, 76 classification of, 67 dating prehistoric, 197, 200 discontinuities in, 55–56 earthquake epicentral and hypocentral distributions of, 53 evaluation difficulties, 46 geometry of, 217 hazards related to, 47–49 Holocene deposits in, 52, 144 identification of, 150 lateral movement of, 115 Lost River, 219–220, 222 low-shake, 76 Meers, 15, 45, 46, 50, 55, 58–59 monitoring, 25, 165 mountain fronts generated by, 127–129 North Anatolian, 56, 63, 151, 169, 173 Oued Fodda, 217–218 patterns of offset vs. time, 212 recorded in strandlines, 112–115 recurrence, 49, 52, 56–57, 211 rupture parameters, 45–46, 54–55 San Andreas, 6, 7, 12, 13, 21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 39, 48, 51, 136, 138, 140, 144, 149, 150, 151, 157, 158, 165, 168–170, 173, 175, 200, 220–222 San Jacinto, 144, 170, 174, 211 segmentation, 55, 217–222 slip, 165–167 slip rates, 51–52, 56, 149 Stillwater, 57 Superstition Hills, 48 thrust, 6, 8, 63, 69, 72, 106, 173 Ventura, 69, 70, 75 vertical movement of, 112–115 Wasatch, 34, 51, 136, 151, 183, 185, 188, 211, 218, 221 see also Active faulting/Faults; Flexural-slip faults; Strike-slip faults Fennoscandia, postglacial rebound of, 36, 105 Flexural-slip faults characteristics, 64–65 examples of coseismic, 67–68 Grey-Inangahua Basin, New Zealand, 65, 72, 76 related to folding, 48 seismicity of, 75–76 slip rates of, 146 Ventura Basin, California, 65–66 Fold-and-thrust belts active tectonics of on-land, 73–75, 76 mechanics of, 64 Folding/Folds active faults related to, 63–77 expressed by strandlines, 109–112 flexural-slip fault relationship to, 48 importance in tectonic studies, 11 near-surface, 69–70 related to faulting, 69–73 societal implications of, 75–77 Fossils, value in dating, 210 G Gases, volcanic, 235, 240 Geodesy near-field tectonic, 164–177 recommended research priorities on, 17 satellite, 53 Geodetic monitoring accuracy, 37, 167–171 techniques, 10, 167–177 Geologic history, tectonic activity forecasts from, 4, 9 Geology data base, 216–217 real-time, recommended research priorities on, 18 volcanic, of Nevada Test site, 251–253 Geomorphic indices mountain-front sinuosity, 138–139 stream gradient, 137–138 valley width-to-height ratio, 139 Geomorphic processes rates of, 7–9, 131–134 surficial, 136–146 Geomorphology focus of, 11 investigatory techniques of, 136–146 recommended research priorities on, 17 soil, 146 studies in, 27 tectonic, of escarpments and mountain fronts, 125–135, 139–141 Glaciations, dating of, 206–207 Global Positioning System, 53, 162–163 Grand Wash Cliffs, 130, 132, 133 Gravitational field, changes preceding volcanic eruption, 240 Gravity effects of on geomorphic process rates, 9 methods for studying fault zones, 51 Grey-Inangahua Basin, flexural-slip faults of, 65, 72, 76 Ground motion, strong, characteristics and intensity, 47 Gulf Coastal Plain, arching of, 38 H Hawaii dry-tilt measurement in, 172 volcanic activity in, 7–8, 31 Hazardous waste, tectonic stability of disposal sites, 92, 247–259 Hazards earthquake, 14, 24, 45–60, 226–228 evaluation, 3, 4, 14, 24, 41, 45–60, 151, 215–228, 247–259 related to faults, 47–49 seismic, trends in geologic analysis, 215–228 volcanic, 13, 247–259 Henry Mountains, 183–184 Hillslopes character of, 126 degradation patterns of, 181–183 loosening-limited, 183–185, 188–189, 191 profile of, 187 transport-limited, 183–188, 189, 191–193

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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics weathering-limited, 184 see also Slopes Himalaya greatest earthquakes of, 64 map of southern margin of, 74 thrust front, profile of, 74 Historical records geodetic monitoring through, 10 of earthquakes, 10, 45–46 Holocene deposits, as indicators of fault activity, 52 deposits, in faults, 144 fault displacements, 13, 15 motions, 39 strandlines, 96–99, 102–108, 110–113, 115–120 see also Chronology; Paleoseismology Hot spots, 39, 41 Hudson Bay, character of, 98 Hurricane Cliffs, 130, 135 Hydration obsidian, 197, 199, 206 tephra, 197, 199 I India active foreland thrust belt of, 73 alluvial plain of, 73 as a rigid indentor, 41 underthrusting beneath Himalaya, 75 Indus Valley, impact of active tectonics on river use, 85 Instruments, geodetic monitoring, 10 Interferometry, very-long-baseline, 10, 163 Interplate regions, characteristics of, 49 Intraplate deformations mechanisms for, 40 social impact of, 41 Intraplate movements, 9, 30–42, 45–46, 49–50, 55, 59 Intraplate regions seismic hazard evaluation of, 49–50 Iran impact of active tectonics on canal use, 85 strandlines in, 115 uplift rate in, 10 Iwo Jima, volcanic uplift of, 104–105 J Japan active folding in, 66–67 coseismic uplift in, 115–118 investigation of faulted terraces in, 145 strandlines, 97, 101, 108–110, 113, 115 stratigraphic record of, 10 vertical displacement rates in, 7 L Lahars, 235 Land use planning, 137 Landforms as indicators of fault activity, 52 assemblages, 126, 139–141 dating, 126 evaluation of faulted, 144 study of active tectonics through, 4, 11 types, 125–126 Landslides, 48–49, 92, 150 Laser ranging satellite, 10, 42, 163 strain measurement by, 10 two-color, 10 Lava flows, 234 Level lines, 10, 53, 168 Leveling, geodetic, 42, 53, 159–161, 166, 169–171, 175 Lichenometry, 197, 199 Liquefaction, 48–49, 150 Lithospheric plates, see Plates Loess deposits, thermoluminescence dating of, 205 Los Gatos Creek, deformation of stream bed of, 72–73, 160–161 Lost River Range, faults along, 13–14 Low-Sun angle photography, 50, 53, 56 M Magma associated with monogenetic volcanic centers, 249 feeder systems, 249 inflation, intraplate, 35–36 intrusion into lower crust, 40 movements, subsurface, 35 separation, 40 volume vs. time plots, 253, 255 Magnetic field, changes preceding volcanic eruption, 240–241 Magnetostratigraphy, 73, 75 Magnitude maximum moment, of subduction zone rupture, 58 moment, 54, 149 scales, 54 surface wave, 52 see also Earthquake magnitudes Mammoth Lakes, intracrustal magmatism in, 36 Mantle, densification, 40 Matuyama Reversed-Polarity Chron, 210 Mendocino triple junction deformations at, 21, 25, 26 plate activity at, 6, 20, 26 Michigan Basin, 31, 33, 40 Microearthquakes, 149 Microplates boundaries, 49 collision with major plates, 6 domains, fault characteristics of, 49 Microseismicity, determining distributions of, 11–12 Microtopography, 140 Middle America, population dwelling near volcanoes in, 237 Mississippi River effects of uplifts on, 91 history of, 87 longitudinal profiles of, 86 profile through Monroe Uplift, 88 Mississippi Valley earthquake potential, 14 impact of active tectonics on river use, 85–91 Modeling/Models characteristic earthquake, 222–224 crustal structure and behavior, 24 earthquake hazard, 226–228 earthquake recurrence, 56, 224–226 Hillslope degradation, 185–193 of fault scarps, 181–193 of fault segments, 55 of fold-and-thrust belt mechanics, 64, 76–77 Poisson-Exponential, 227 process response, 141–146 renewal, 228 schematic, of fault structure, 57 seismic deformation cycle, 156 seismogenic, 47 snowplow, 64 time-predictable, 227 Mojave Desert nontectonic fault slip in, 169 pediment surface in, 133 Molasse sediments, 74 Monitoring crustal tilt, 171–173 deformation rates, 155–156 dry-tilt method, 172–173 faults, 25, 165 geodetic, 10, 17, 37, 164–177 Long Valley, 36 recurrence of slip-stick faulting, 76 San Andreas Fault system, 25 seismic, of volcanoes, 239 strain and stress, 18, 53 stratigraphic, 10–11 volcanoes, 238–241 see also Instruments Monroe Uplift active tectonics of, 87–90 uplift rates of, 7 Montague Island, vertical displacement of, 7, 48 Montalvo Mounds, 72 Morphology, stream-valley, 128–129 Mountain blocks, 127–128 Mountain fronts fault-generated, 127–129 hypothetical uplift history of, 126 tectonic geomorphology of, 125–135 Mountains, see specific mountains Murray River, 81 N Nankai Trough, seismic activity of, 161–162 Neotectonics, 9, 39

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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics Nevada Test Site radioactive waste disposal in, 248 volcanic geology of, 251–253 New Guinea coastline tilt of, 109 strandlines, 96, 99–100, 107–109 New Mexico, uplift in, 35 New York, seismicity in, 34–35, 39 New Zealand block diagram of Giles Creek faulting, 66 coseismic uplift in, 119–120 investigation of faulted terraces in, 145 strandlines, 97, 101, 111–113, 120 see also Grey-Inangahua Basin North America seismicity of eastern coast, 97 southeastern, character of coastline, 97, 101 western, historical earthquake records of, 10 see also United States Nuclear fuel, spent, disposal of, 248 Nuclear reactors Bodega Bay, 12–13 GE Vallecitos test, 210 seismic hazards to, 215 siting, 51, 215 O Oakwood Salt Dome, 92 Obduction, description, 6 Oil exploration, in active fold-and-thrust belts, 76 Oklahoma, fault displacements in, 15 Oregon active-tectonic realms of, 21, 22, 26 Coast Ranges, tectonic activity of, 26 coastline displacement, 107 plate activity beneath, 6 Orogeny deformational processes of, 5–6 examples, 6 P Pakistan active foreland thrust belt of, 73 Salt Range, 64, 73 Paleomagnetism, 200, 210 Paleoseismicity Holocene, 144 Paleoseismology Central Nevada Seismic Belt, 57 earthquake magnitude approximation in, 55 earthquake risk assessment through, 125 of San Andreas Fault zone, 56 progress in, 149 recommended research priorities on, 17–18 research techniques in, 148–152 Palos Verdes Peninsula, marine strandlines of, 95 Pearl River, effect of Wiggins Uplift on, 91 Pediments, 131, 133 Peninsular Ranges, tectonic activity of, 23 Plate tectonics theory, 30, 49, 233 Plates activity along margins of, 5–6 Asiatic, 6 Australia-India, 119 boundaries, 57, 95, 233 boundary forces of, 39 collision of, 6, 39 convergence, 21, 57–58, 63, 73, 232–233 Eurasian, 73, 75, 115, 116 Indian, 6, 39, 73, 75 Juan de Fuca-Gorda, 5–6, 20, 21, 26, 57–58, 158 location of volcanoes relative to, 232–233 movement of, 6, 7, 10 21, 30 North American, 5–7, 20–21, 25, 26, 39, 50, 57, 75, 158, 211 Pacific, 5–7, 20, 21, 25, 26, 30–31, 75, 119, 211 Philippine Sea, 161 rotation, 23 sliding past each other, 30 see also Interplate and Intraplate listings; Microplates Pleistocene strandlines, 96, 98–102, 104, 106–109, 111, 113, 115 see also Chronology; Dating; Paleoseismology Porpoise structure, 23, 25 Postglacial rebound, 30, 32, 36–37, 39, 41, 105 Predictions implications of preseismic deformations for, 34 seismic event, 4, 7–8, 16–17, 34, 41, 49, 57, 118, 136, 142, 144, 169, 249–251 Probabilistic risk assessment, 253–256 Probability studies, recommended research priorities on, 18 Pyroclastic falls and flows, 234 Pyroclastic surge, 235 R Radar imagery, 50 Radioactive waste disposal, volcanic hazard assessment for, 247–259 Radioactive waste repository, effect of volcanic eruption on, 249–251 Range fronts, characterization, 8 Ranges, see specific ranges Reactivation concept, 39 Red Mountain, strandline across, 113 Research needs coastal tectonics, 120–121 in coastal tectonics, 120–121 in tectonic geomorphology, 135 morphologic dating of fault scarps, 193 on dating, 17 on probability studies, 18 seismological and paleoseismological, 17–18, 151–152 Ring of Fire, 30, 233 Rio Grande rift, 35, 36 Rivers major, in areas of structural instability, 80 see also Aluvial rivers; specific rivers Rockfalls, 48 S Salton Trough, 21–22, 166, 169 San Francisco Bay area, active faults of, 157 San Gabriel Mountains, application of stream-gradient index to, 137–138 Sand blows, liquefaction-related, 57, 150 Santa Clara syncline, diagrammatic cross-section, 66 Satellite, geodesy, 53 Scarps tectonic geomorphology of, 125–135 with simple initial morphology, profile of, 183 see also Escarpments; Fault scarps Sea level changes, 36–37, 95–121 history, 96, 99, 104 Sedimentary deposits, use to appraise earthquake hazards, 24 Seiches, 48–49 Seismic gaps, description, 57 Seismic moment, 54, 149 Seismic networks, 4, 54 Seismic reflection techniques, 51 Seismicity global map of, 31 of eastern United States, 50 of intraplate regions, 49–50 patterns of, 53–54 resulting from magma inflation, 35 see also Paleoseismicity Seismographs, 25, 239 Seismology improved techniques of, 149 research techniques in, 148–152 Seismometer networks, 53, 152 Shivwitz Plateau, 132 Sierra Nevada foothills, earthquake and fault displacement potential of, 13 Sinuosity mountain front, 8, 128, 137–139 river channel, 82–84, 87, 88–92 Slip aseismic, 165 coseismic, 114 dynamically triggered, 166–167, 169, 174, 176 preseismic, 174 rates, 51–52, 56, 146, 149, 158, 216, 225–226 Slopes characterization of, 126–127 elements of, 143

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Active Tectonics: Studies in Geophysics equilibrium in, 126–127 evolution of, 127 patterns of change of, 127 replacement, 130, 131 retreat, 130 scarp, 142 transport-limited, 127 weathering-limited, 127 see also Hillslopes Soils disturbances be faulting and earthquakes, 152 geomorphology, 146 Profile Development Index, 207 Source directivity, 47 Strain gauges, 27 meters, 10 rates, 34 release, 7–8, 48 tectonic, 10 Strandlines depositional, 96, 97 displacement and deformation of, 103–120 erosional, 96, 97 fault movement recorded in, 112–115 Holocene, 96–99, 102–108, 110–113, 115–120 marine, 95–120 Pleistocene, 96, 98–102, 104, 106–109, 111, 113, 115 Stratigraphy, monitoring tectonic activity through, 10–11, 200, 209–210, 213 Stream valleys, morphology, 128–129 Strike-slip faults disruptions by, 6 landform assemblage characteristic of, 140–141 relationship between earthquake magnitude and displacement for, 55 simple shear associated with, 142 vertical displacements of, 151 Subduction along offshore Peru-Chile trench, 98 character of in northwestern United States, 45, 57–58 description, 6 oblique, 26 of Juan de Fuca plate, 26, 57–58 of Pacific Ocean plates, 30 volcanic association with, 35, 36 zones, earthquake magnitude in, 49 Subsidence, 48 Subsurface radar profiling, 50 Surveys aeromagnetic methods, 51 alignment, 53 geodetic, 53, 162–163 space-based, 163 surface magnetic method, 51 T Taiwan, fold-and-thrust belt of, 64 Tallahala Creek, channel profile of, 90–91 Tectonic activity, see Active tectonics Tectonic processes rates, 5–9 types, 5–6 see also Epeirogeny; Folding/Folds; Orogeny Tectonic realms analysis of, 11 definition, 21 western conterminous United States, 21–26 Tectonics, intraplate, see Intraplate listings Tephrochronology, 73, 75, 200, 210 Thermoluminescence, 197, 198, 204–205 Thrusting dip-slip, 69 oblique-slip, 69 Tide-gauge records, 95–97, 102, 104–105 Tigrus and Euphrates Valley, impact of active tectonics on canal use, 85 Tilt along a straight coastline, 109 leveling to detect, 171–173 of bedrock and river terraces over Ventura Avenue Anticline, 146 of marine strandlines, 107–109 rate calculation, 108 Tiltmeters, 10, 134 Tomography, 149 Toppenish Ridge, Washington, bending moment faults at, 69, 72 Transverse Ranges active faults in, 24, 149 tectonic activity of, 23, 63–64, 65–66, 75 Tremor, volcanic or harmonic, 239 Trenching/Trenches across active faults, 152, 222–224 exploratory, 51, 69 log of, 222–223 Triangulation, 53, 166–168 Trilateration, 10, 53, 156, 158–159, 166, 168–169 Tsunamis, 48–49 U United States central and eastern, earthquake characteristics in, 46 eastern, seismicity in, 50 eastern, vertical motion of, 39 intraplate stress patterns for, 39 investigation of faulted terraces in, 145 northwestern, subduction character of, 57–58 western, active fault evaluation in, 46 western, vertical displacement rates in, 7 see also North America Uplift following glacial unloading, 37 hypothetical history of, 126 of Appalachian Mountains, 37 of bedrock and river terraces over Ventura Avenue Anticline, 146 rates, 7, 10–11, 23, 35, 36, 40, 100, 104, 106, 115–120, 125–126 strandline production by, 115–120 theoretical patterns of, 116 V Valleys warping of alluvial terraces in, 81 width-to-height ratio, 139 see also Stream valleys Varve chronology, 197, 198 Ventura Avenue anticline, 7, 23, 75–76, 146 Ventura Basin, 65, 73, 138 Vermillion Cliffs, 131 Viscoelastic relaxation, 32 Volcanoes active, 26 Cascade Range, 26 characteristics of, 233–235 deformations associated with, 26 distribution of, 232–233, 236 eruptions of, 7–8, 233–235, 238, 241–245 Hawaiian Islands-Emperor Seamount chain, 31 hazards to radioactive waste disposal, 247–259 historical record of, 10 impact of people, 236–238 location relative to plates, 232–233 monitoring, 238–241 Mount St. Helens, 7–8, 235, 239, 244 public response to, 241–245 sociological impacts of, 231–245 tectonic setting of, 231–245 vertical displacements by, 104–105 world distribution of, 232 W Wasatch Range, 185, 221 Washington (state) active tectonic realms of, 21, 22, 26 Coast Ranges, tectonic activity of, 26 coastline displacement, 107 plate activity beneath, 6 volcanic activity in, 8 Wiggins Uplift, active tectonics of, 90–91 Wrench faulting, 26 Y Yellowstone National Park, intracrustal magmatism in, 36 Z Zagros Mountains, 64