seismic monitoring network in, 159

strandlines, 96, 101, 108, 113–114

vertical displacements in, 7

see also Baja California

Canals, impact of active tectonics on, 85, 92

Carbon-14, 56–57, 152, 197–202, 203, 213

Cascade Range, 26, 57

Channels

classification of, 82

effect of uplift on, 90

modifications of, 81

pattern changes, 82–85

profile of, 134

source of morphologic changes in, 91

Chronology

Pleistocene to Holocene, 146

see also Varve chronology

Climate, effects of on geomorphic processes, 8–9, 37, 52, 84

Coastlines

active-tectonic, 98

morphology and tectonic setting, 96–98

see also Strandlines

Columbia River Basalt, radioactive waste disposal in, 248

Consequence assessment, 256–258

Cratons

earthquakes in, 31

North American, 26

vertical motions of, 30–32

Creep, 48, 140, 151, 152, 165–166, 169, 171, 173–174, 185–187

Creepmeters, 7, 10, 53, 169

Crust

dynamics, studies of, 11

extension patterns, 6, 21, 27

horizontal displacement of, 167–169

loadings, 36–37

lower, magma intrusion into, 40

movements in coastal areas, 104

shortening, 6, 27

vertical displacements of, 7, 103–107, 112, 169–171

see also Hot spots

Crust deformation

documentation of, 26–27

importance of studies on, 20–21

types, 5–6

Crustal blocks, see Plates

D

Dams, Auburn thin arch, 12–13, 14, 47, 215–216

Dating

annual, 197

by basalt flows and volcanic ash deposits, 133, 134, 210

by deformation rate, 199

by deposition rate, 199

by fossils and artifacts, 200, 210

by geomorphic position and incision rate, 199

by historical records, 197, 198

by progressive landform modification, 199, 208

by rock and mineral weathering, 199, 206–207

by soil development, 197, 199, 207–208

by tektites, 200

carbon-14, 56–57, 152, 197–202, 203, 213

coastal area deformation, 203, 206

control of, 209

correlation methods, 209–210

cosmogenic isotope, 198, 205

desert environments, 207

episodes of faulting, 200

fault scarps, 189–193

fission-track, 197, 198, 204

glaciations, 207

landforms, 126

methods, 195–213

morphologic, of fault scarps, 181–193

paleoseismological techniques, 151

Pleistocene strandlines, 100–102

potassium-argon, 197, 198, 204

prehistoric faults, 156, 197, 200

problems, 200–202, 203, 212–213

Quaternary, 52, 135, 205

radiometric, 75, 102, 103, 118, 197–205

research priorities on, 17

sedimentary materials, 205

spanning different time intervals, 210–212

stable isotope, 200

uranium series, 197, 198, 202–204

uranium-trend, 197, 198, 205

Death Valley, alluvial fans in, 139

Deformation

coseismic, 32, 41, 156

ground, measurement of, 239

interseismic, 34

permanent, 156, 160–162

postseismic, 32

preseismic, 32, 34

societal impact, 158–160

tectonic, 48

see also Crust deformation;

Earthquakes;

Faulting/Faults

Deformation rates

dating by, 199

irregularities in, 158–160

monitoring, 155–156

present-day, 156–158

Dendrochronology, 142, 197, 198, 202

Desert environments, dating, 207

Disaster preparedness, advances in, 16–17

Displacements

glacio-isostatic, 104–106

ground, during Fort Tejon earthquake, 25

horizontal, 167–169

per event, 217

tectonic, 106–107

vertical, 7, 48, 103–107, 112–115, 151, 169–171

see also Fault displacements

Distributed shear, 41

E

Earthquakes

Alaskan (1964), 7, 48, 49, 64, 111–112, 118–119, 171

along San Andreas Fault, 140–141

belts, 30–31

Borah Peak, Idaho (1983), 7, 13, 15, 33, 204, 222–224

Borrego Mountain (1968), 48, 144

caused by quarrying, 67

Charleston, South Carolina (1886), 31, 34, 35, 50, 57, 97, 150

Coalinga (1983), 25, 48, 72–73, 76, 160, 166

countermeasures, 15–17

deformation cycle, 156

deformations resulting from, 32–35, 149, 155–158

differences in, 149

Dixie Valley, Nevada (1954), 32, 33, 49, 51, 57, 191

El Asnam, Algeria (1980), 48, 67, 69, 72, 152, 218–219

elapsed time of, 217

Fort Tejon (1857), 25

Ganges flood plain, 64

generation process diagram, 196

ground displacement during, 25

Guatemalan (1976), 48–49

hazards, 14, 24, 45–60, 226–228

Hebgen Lake, Montana (1959), 33

Himalayan, 64

historical records of, 10, 45–46

Homestead Valley (1979), 166

identification of, 150

Imperial Valley (1979), 171

in cratons, 31

in Upper Indus Basin, 92

Inangahua, New Zealand (1968), 67, 171

intraplate, 32–33, 46, 116

Kanto (1703, 1923), 116–117

Lompoc (1981), 75–76

magnitude, 33, 35, 49, 54, 55, 216

maximum credible and maximum probable, 215–216

mechanics of minor movements, 165

Murchison (1929), 171

Nankai (1946), 109, 161–162

Nankaido (1707), 117

Napier (1931), 171

New Madrid (1811–1812), 14, 16, 31, 35, 50, 59, 85, 87, 150

Niigata, Japan (1964), 49

Oroville, California (1975), 33

Parkfield (1966), 25

Pleasant Valley (1915), 191

prehistoric, 11, 149–152

recurrence, 9, 15, 56–57, 73, 85, 95, 114, 115–120, 136–137, 142, 144–145, 161, 200, 217, 224–226



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