Appendix E
Data Tables for Chapter 2



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--> Appendix E Data Tables for Chapter 2

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--> Table E.1 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, 1963–1996   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total PhDs 2095 2356 2681 2887 3151 3695 4083 4503 4980 4855 4912 4734 4847 4800 4692 4809 4948 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Men Total 1887 2113 2401 2542 2729 3184 3517 3913 4265 4117 4046 3867 3888 3835 3769 3754 3810 % 90.1 89.7 89.6 88.0 86.6 86.2 86.1 86.9 85.6 84.8 82.4 81.7 80.2 79.9 80.3 78.1 77.0 US citizen/perm. residents 1582 1706 1888 2024 2240 2607 2946 3337 3656 3511 3457 3100 3235 3220 3151 3163 3207 % 75.5 72.4 70.4 70.1 71.1 70.6 72.2 74.1 73.4 72.3 70.4 65.5 66.7 67.1 67.2 65.8 64.8 Women Total 208 243 280 345 422 511 566 590 715 738 866 867 959 965 923 1055 1138 % 9.9 10.3 10.4 12.0 13.4 13.8 13.9 13.1 14.4 15.2 17.6 18.3 19.8 20.1 19.7 21.9 23.0 US citizen/perm. residents 172 199 245 291 349 460 498 525 637 670 783 752 886 855 804 919 1014 % 8.2 8.4 9.1 10.1 11.1 12.4 12.2 11.7 12.8 13.8 15.9 15.9 18.3 17.8 17.1 19.1 20.5 Whites (all PhDs)                     3104 3521 3838 3790 3718 3661 3798 %                     63.2 74.4 79.2 79.0 79.2 76.1 76.8 Whites (US and perms)                     2910 3284 3628 3591 3495 3473 3639 %                     59.2 69.4 74.9 74.8 74.5 72.2 73.5 Minorities (US & perms)                     96 96 104 105 109 134 110 %                     2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.8 2.2 Total US & perms 1754 1905 2133 2315 2589 3067 3444 3862 4293 4181 4240 3852 4121 4075 3955 4082 4221 % 83.7 80.9 79.6 80.2 82.2 83.0 84.3 85.8 86.2 86.1 86.3 81.4 85.0 84.9 84.3 84.9 85.3

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-->   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Temp visas staying in US 103 104 125 157 174 186 191 178 147 128 137 169 175 160 166 156 147 % 4.9 4.4 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.8 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.0 Temp visas leaving US 168 229 280 262 260 301 284 324 336 345 342 367 334 318 327 325 335 % 8.0 9.7 10.4 9.1 8.3 8.1 7.0 7.2 6.7 7.1 7.0 7.8 6.9 6.6 7.0 6.8 6.8 Total temporary residents 325 415 518 525 517 586 589 606 589 574 584 663 628 603 623 602 606 % 15.5 17.6 19.3 18.2 16.4 15.9 14.4 13.5 11.8 11.8 11.9 14.0 13.0 12.6 13.3 12.5 12.2 Postdoctoral appointments 485 567 709 764 873 1095 1305 1607 1729 1720 1797 1655 1970 2046 2026 2161 2274 % 23.2 24.1 26.4 26.5 27.7 29.6 32.0 35.7 34.7 35.4 36.6 35.0 40.6 42.6 43.2 44.9 46.0 Elapsed time to degree               6.0 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 Median age at time of degree               29.3 29.4 29.8 30.1 30.1 29.8 29.8 29.9 30.0 29.9

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-->   1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total Total PhDs 5180 5288 5362 5263 5414 5428 5360 5399 5807 5908 6211 6508 6682 6924 7182 7312 7696 171952 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Men Total 3909 3936 3923 3737 3855 3806 3688 3649 3844 3842 4058 4183 4231 4247 4377 4425 4552 125899 % 75.5 74.4 73.2 71.0 71.2 70.1 68.8 67.6 66.2 65.0 65.3 64.3 63.3 61.3 60.9 60.5 59.1 73.2 US citizen/perm. residents 3294 3287 3243 3040 3118 2993 2841 2752 2814 2785 2866 2924 2813 2852 3142 3241 3139 99174 % 63.6 62.2 60.5 57.8 57.6 55.1 53.0 51.0 48.5 47.1 46.1 44.9 42.1 41.2 43.7 44.3 40.8 57.7 Women Total 1271 1352 1439 1526 1559 1622 1672 1750 1963 2066 2153 2301 2420 2632 2777 2848 3113 45855 % 24.5 25.6 26.8 29.0 28.8 29.9 31.2 32.4 33.8 35.0 34.7 35.4 36.2 38.0 38.7 38.9 40.4 26.7 US citizen/perm. Residents 1137 1200 1289 1363 1374 1380 1428 1447 1603 1674 1701 1790 1872 2001 2236 2319 2440 38313 % 21.9 22.7 24.0 25.9 25.4 25.4 26.6 26.8 27.6 28.3 27.4 27.5 28.0 28.9 31.1 31.7 31.7 22.3 Whites (All PhDs) 4031 4118 4259 4155 4211 4126 3995 3897 4155 4177 4331 4391 4348 4436 4476 4410 4518 97464 % 77.8 77.9 79.4 78.9 77.8 76.0 74.5 72.2 71.6 70.7 69.7 67.5 65.1 64.1 62.3 60.3 58.7 56.7 Whites (US & perms) 3829 3929 4043 3931 3995 3888 3778 3667 3889 3911 3994 4043 4004 4070 4099 4048 4078 91216 % 73.9 74.3 75.4 74.7 73.8 71.6 70.5 67.9 67.0 66.2 64.3 62.1 59.9 58.8 57.1 55.4 53.0 53.0 Minorities (US & perms) 115 143 142 130 158 178 186 192 210 206 221 250 242 274 319 340 341 4401 % 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.6 4.4 2.6 Total US & Perms 4431 4487 4532 4403 4492 4373 4269 4199 4417 4459 4567 4714 4685 4853 5378 5561 5579 137488 % 85.5 84.9 84.5 83.7 83.0 80.6 79.6 77.8 76.1 75.5 73.5 72.4 70.1 70.1 74.9 76.1 72.5 80.0

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-->   1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total Temp visas staying in US 167 156 176 191 223 263 264 333 413 476 606 928 1132 1165 960 910 1196 12162 % 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.8 4.9 6.2 7.1 8.1 9.8 14.3 16.9 16.8 13.4 12.4 15.5 7.1 Temp visas leaving US 345 358 353 356 344 408 353 352 376 372 571 597 633 658 658 624 650 13145 % 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.4 7.5 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.3 9.2 9.2 9.5 9.5 9.2 8.5 8.4 7.6 Total temporary residents 650 663 674 719 749 865 806 887 1032 1102 1472 1683 1886 1927 1726 1633 1939 29966 % 12.5 12.5 12.6 13.7 13.8 15.9 15.0 16.4 17.8 18.7 23.7 25.9 28.2 27.8 24.0 22.3 25.5 17.4 Postdoctoral appointments 2425 2395 2474 2400 2491 2486 2588 2647 2946 2949 3162 3371 3497 3656 3731 3768 3940 75709 % 46.8 45.3 46.1 45.6 46.0 45.8 48.3 49.0 50.7 49.9 50.9 51.8 52.3 52.8 51.9 51.5 51.2 44.0 Elapsed time to degree 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0   Median age at time of degree 29.9 29.8 30.2 30.4 30.8 31.1 31.3 31.4 31.7 31.8 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0  

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--> Table E.2 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs in the Biomedical Sciences, 1963–1996   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total PhDs 1319 1510 1717 1916 2141 2501 2817 3136 3449 3402 3437 3336 3408 3483 3393 3449 3560 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Men Total 1136 1311 1472 1614 1778 2045 2325 2622 2828 2753 2704 2578 2563 2648 2606 2542 2589 % 86.1 86.8 85.7 84.2 83.0 81.8 82.5 83.6 82.0 80.9 78.7 77.3 75.2 76.0 76.8 73.7 72.7 US citizen/perm. residents 975 1098 1206 1342 1525 1753 2027 2308 2505 2444 2415 2180 2250 2324 2298 2253 2308 % 73.9 72.7 70.2 70.0 71.2 70.1 72.0 73.6 72.6 71.8 70.3 65.3 66.0 66.7 67.7 65.3 64.8 Women Total 183 199 245 302 363 456 492 514 621 649 733 758 845 835 787 907 971 % 13.9 13.2 14.3 15.8 17.0 18.2 17.5 16.4 18.0 19.1 21.3 22.7 24.8 24.0 23.2 26.3 27.3 US citizen/perm. residents 154 170 221 261 312 413 441 463 566 599 672 676 782 747 697 810 880 % 11.7 11.3 12.9 13.6 14.6 16.5 15.7 14.8 16.4 17.6 19.6 20.3 22.9 21.4 20.5 23.5 24.7 Whites (all PhDs)                     2189 2513 2744 2786 2752 2668 2801 %                     63.7 75.3 80.5 80.0 81.1 77.4 78.7 Whites (US & perms)                     2088 2404 2641 2677 2629 2579 2727 %                     60.8 72.1 77.5 76.9 77.5 74.8 76.6 Minorities (US & perms)                     78 81 83 81 76 101 84 %                     2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.9 2.4

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-->   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total US & perms 1129 1268 1427 1603 1837 2166 2468 2771 3071 3043 3087 2856 3032 3071 2995 3063 3188 % 85.6 84.0 83.1 83.7 85.8 86.6 87.6 88.4 89.0 89.4 89.8 85.6 89.0 88.2 88.3 88.8 89.6 Temp visas staying in US 77 80 91 119 125 131 129 128 101 94 94 121 120 130 114 121 115 % 5.8 5.3 5.3 6.2 5.8 5.2 4.6 4.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.2 Temp visas leaving US 76 97 123 103 95 110 129 146 123 128 124 123 114 113 121 108 110 % 5.8 6.4 7.2 5.4 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.7 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.1 3.1 Total temporary residents 181 214 273 279 269 304 309 333 284 269 269 307 285 301 297 284 272 % 13.7 14.2 15.9 14.6 12.6 12.2 11.0 10.6 8.2 7.9 7.8 9.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.2 7.6 Postdoctoral appointments 404 483 589 668 759 949 1121 1406 1495 1516 1552 1459 1756 1833 1826 1938 2030 % 30.6 32.0 34.3 34.9 35.5 37.9 39.8 44.8 43.3 44.6 45.2 43.7 51.5 52.6 53.8 56.2 57.0 Time to degree               6.0 6.0 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.5 Median age at time of degree               29.1 29.1 29.4 29.7 29.6 29.4 29.4 29.4 29.6 29.6

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-->   1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total Total PhDs 3742 3750 3866 3693 3813 3698 3789 3915 4262 4318 4501 4865 5060 5430 5523 5728 6021 123948 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Men Total 2677 2650 2698 2433 2531 2395 2426 2467 2637 2616 2743 2925 3030 3170 3150 3245 3383 85290 % 71.5 70.7 69.8 65.9 66.4 64.8 64.0 63.0 61.9 60.6 60.9 60.1 59.9 58.4 57.0 56.7 56.2 68.8 US citizen/perm. residents 2403 2371 2336 2110 2167 1998 1978 1941 2036 2005 2043 2152 2133 2254 2403 2493 2445 70479 % 64.2 63.2 60.4 57.1 56.8 54.0 52.2 49.6 47.8 46.4 45.4 44.2 42.2 41.5 43.5 43.5 40.6 56.9 Women Total 1065 1100 1168 1260 1282 1303 1363 1448 1625 1702 1758 1921 2008 2220 2347 2452 2609 38491 % 28.5 29.3 30.2 34.1 33.6 35.2 36.0 37.0 38.1 39.4 39.1 39.5 39.7 40.9 42.5 42.8 43.3 31.1 US citizen/perm. residents 962 1003 1058 1138 1150 1132 1185 1216 1353 1399 1416 1521 1591 1732 1936 2049 2082 32787 % 25.7 26.7 27.4 30.8 30.2 30.6 31.3 31.1 31.7 32.4 31.5 31.3 31.4 31.9 35.1 35.8 34.6 26.5 Whites (All PhDs) 2978 3025 3113 2974 3020 2872 2886 2879 3122 3116 3216 3337 3363 3525 3496 3472 3519 72366 % 79.6 80.7 80.5 80.5 79.2 77.7 76.2 73.5 73.3 72.2 71.5 68.6 66.5 64.9 63.3 60.6 58.4 58.4 Whites (US & perms) 2879 2946 2996 2872 2914 2754 2777 2736 2979 2963 3006 3113 3158 3304 3259 3229 3231 68861 % 76.9 78.6 77.5 77.8 76.4 74.5 73.3 69.9 69.9 68.6 66.8 64.0 62.4 60.8 59.0 56.4 53.7 55.6 Minorities (US & perms) 87 104 116 104 121 126 135 150 151 161 165 199 191 220 256 277 273 3420 % 2.3 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.6 4.8 4.5   Total US & perms 3365 3374 3394 3248 3317 3130 3163 3157 3389 3404 3459 3673 3724 3986 4339 4543 4527 103267 % 89.9 90.0 87.8 88.0 87.0 84.6 83.5 80.6 79.5 78.8 76.8 75.5 73.6 73.4 78.6 79.3 75.2 83.3

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-->   1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total Temp vasas staying in US 130 112 130 155 164 205 193 278 327 368 473 732 893 944 743 704 949 9390 % 3.5 3.0 3.4 4.2 4.3 5.5 5.1 7.1 7.7 8.5 10.5 15.0 17.6 17.4 13.5 12.3 15.8 7.6 Temp vasas leaving US 108 97 146 100 108 122 126 128 150 155 267 281 287 310 303 313 334 5278 % 2.9 2.6 3.8 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.3 Total temporary residents 299 278 341 335 355 417 417 523 596 662 922 1108 1252 1317 1118 1084 1341 17095 % 8.0 7.4 8.8 9.1 9.3 11.3 11.0 13.4 14.0 15.3 20.5 22.8 24.7 24.3 20.2 18.9 22.3 13.8 Postdoctoral appointments 2159 2118 2169 2098 2125 2095 2190 2255 2498 2502 2665 2872 3009 3204 3228 3319 3454 65744 % 57.7 56.5 56.1 56.8 55.7 56.7 57.8 57.6 58.6 57.9 59.2 59.0 59.5 59.0 58.4 57.9 57.4 53.0 Time to degree 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8   Median age at time of degree 29.4 29.5 29.8 30.0 30.5 30.7 30.9 30.8 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.4 31.6 31.4 31.4 31.5 31.5  

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--> Table E.3 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs in Nonbiomedical Life Sciences, 1963–1996   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total PhDs 776 846 964 971 1010 1194 1266 1367 1531 1453 1475 1398 1439 1317 1299 1360 1388 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Men Total 751 802 929 928 951 1139 1192 1291 1437 1364 1342 1289 1325 1187 1163 1212 1221 % 96.8 94.8 96.4 95.6 94.2 95.4 94.2 94.4 93.9 93.9 91.0 92.2 92.1 90.1 89.5 89.1 88.0 US citizen/perm. residents 607 608 682 682 715 854 919 1029 1151 1067 1042 920 985 896 853 910 899 % 78.2 71.9 70.7 70.2 70.8 71.5 72.6 75.3 75.2 73.4 70.6 65.8 68.5 68.0 65.7 66.9 64.8 Women Total 25 44 35 43 59 55 74 76 94 89 133 109 114 130 136 148 167 % 3.2 5.2 3.6 4.4 5.8 4.6 5.8 5.6 6.1 6.1 9.0 7.8 7.9 9.9 10.5 10.9 12.0 US citizen/prm. residents 18 29 24 30 37 47 57 62 71 71 111 76 104 108 107 109 134 % 2.3 3.4 2.5 3.1 3.7 3.9 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.9 7.5 5.4 7.2 8.2 8.2 8.0 9.7 Whites (all PhDs)                     915 1008 1094 1004 966 993 997 %                     62.0 72.1 76.0 76.2 74.4 73.0 71.8 Whites (US & perms)                     822 880 987 914 866 894 912 %                     55.7 62.9 68.6 69.4 66.7 65.7 65.7 Minorities (US & perms)                     18 15 21 24 33 33 26 %                     1.2 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.5 2.4 1.9 Total US & perms 625 637 706 712 752 901 976 1091 1222 1138 1153 996 1089 1004 960 1019 1033 % 80.5 75.3 73.2 73.3 74.5 75.5 77.1 79.8 79.8 78.3 78.2 71.2 75.7 76.2 73.9 74.9 74.4

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-->   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Temp visas staying in US 26 24 34 38 49 55 62 50 46 34 43 48 55 30 52 35 32 % 3.4 2.8 3.5 3.9 4.9 4.6 4.9 3.7 3.0 2.3 2.9 3.4 3.8 2.3 4.0 2.6 2.3 Temp visas leaving US 92 132 157 159 165 191 155 178 213 217 218 244 220 205 206 217 225 % 11.9 15.6 16.3 16.4 16.3 16.0 12.2 13.0 13.9 14.9 14.8 17.5 15.3 15.6 15.9 16.0 16.2 Total temporary residents 144 201 245 246 248 282 280 273 305 305 315 356 343 302 326 318 334 % 18.6 23.8 25.4 25.3 24.6 23.6 22.1 20.0 19.9 21.0 21.4 25.5 23.8 22.9 25.1 23.4 24.1 Postdoctoral appointments 81 84 120 96 114 146 184 201 234 204 245 196 214 213 200 223 244 % 10.4 9.9 12.4 9.9 11.3 12.2 14.5 14.7 15.3 14.0 16.6 14.0 14.9 16.2 15.4 16.4 17.6 Time to degree               6.0 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.9 6.9 6.8 Median age at time of degree               29.9 30.4 30.7 31.1 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.1 31.0

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-->   FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients   Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n   Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs** Ecology 2018 31 14 37 9.0 1771 20 6 28 7.3 1047 9 8 16 6.1 Endocrinology 248 46 23 65 8.0 75 39 11 73 7.0           Entomology 1483 21 25 32 8.5 1550 13 20 22 7.1 1726 6 18 16 6.3 Genetics, animal & plant           1041 35 12 59 6.5 1409 21 22 39 6.0 Genetics, human & animal 1678 46 16 71 7.5 282 46 6 67 7.3           Hydrobiology           40 15 0 25 7.0 161 5 4 17 6.7 Immunology 1882 45 13 74 7.5 1257 37 7 73 6.5 208 27 7 62 6.0 Microbiology 4110 39 20 67 7.7 944 37 10 64 7.0           Microbiology & bacteriology           2416 29 8 62 6.3 3695 22 9 46 6.1 Molecular biology 5247 40 20 78 7.5 1961 33 8 79 6.5 864 29 8 74 5.7 Neurosciences 2558 39 13 78 7.5 552 34 6 79 6.9           Nutritional sciences 1433 70 23 33 8.5 1006 61 16 30 7.1           Parasitology 206 36 22 50 8.4 184 16 16 39 7.5 63 19 10 37 7.1 Pathology, human & animal 1274 36 18 49 8.3 974 26 11 42 7.0 605 8 13 25 6.9 Pharmacology, human & animal 2889 39 16 71 7.0 2344 24 7 67 6.2 1537 14 9 50 6.0 Physiology, human & animal 2898 36 18 63 7.8 2939 23 7 66 6.6 3087 16 8 46 6.0 Plant genetics 324 28 31 65 7.6 70 24 24 50 7.7           Plant pathology 383 30 37 50 8.0 97 22 22 36 6.3           Plant Physiology 665 32 28 53 8.1 576 23 17 49 6.8 817 13 22 31 6.2 Toxicology 1204 36 12 45 7.9 256 25 5 48 7.2           Zoology 1450 30 13 40 8.7 2112 23 4 34 7.5 3008 16 5 26 6.3 Biological sciences, general 3087 39 20 50 8.0 1908 31 8 43 7.0 1183 24 8 31 6.0 Biological sciences, other 1560 37 17 49 8.3 1416 31 7 57 6.9 1405 29 11 35 6.2 Environmental health 473 37 22 20 8.9 356 24 10 19 7.6 71 17 0 13 6.5 Epidemiology 1285 59 17 20 9.3 255 59 14 15 8.3           Pharmacy 1417 34 39 22 7.8 762 19 19 17 7.0 559 8 18 13 6.2 Public health 1464 63 18 11 9.8 219 59 9 5 8.8           Public health/epidemiology           887 44 10 9 7.8 792 25 10 4 7.3

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-->   FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients   Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs** Health science, general 317 43 15 30 8.1 167 30 7 44 7.0 125 18 7 31 6.0 Health sciences, other 1084 46 17 16 9.1 909 31 10 28 7.4 701 31 9 23 6.9 Bioengineering and biomedical 1549 21 27 36 7.3 700 6 13 31 7.0 439 2 8 29 6.3 Pharmaceutical chemistry 853 32 28 2 7.4 552 18 16 41 6.5 572 8 17 30 6.5 * Total for 1973–75. Data on race/ethnicity is available only for 1973 to date. Percentages calculated with base years 1973 to 1975. ** Median computed only for period 1970 to 1975

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--> Table E.5 Demographic Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs by Citizenship, 1963–1996   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Total PhDs 2095 2356 2681 2887 3151 3695 4083 4503 4980 4855 4912 4734 4847 4800 4692 4809 4948 5180 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 US citizen & prm. residents 1754 1905 2133 2315 2589 3067 3444 3862 4293 4181 4240 3852 4121 4075 3955 4082 4221 4431 % 83.7 80.9 79.6 80.2 82.2 83.0 84.3 85.8 86.2 86.1 86.3 81.4 85.0 84.9 84.3 84.9 85.3 85.5 US citizens—native born 1692 1824 2039 2213 2392 2783 3152 3504 3854 3705 3746 3405 3673 3684 3593 3676 3872 4054 % 80.8 77.4 76.1 76.7 75.9 75.3 77.2 77.8 77.4 76.3 76.3 71.9 75.8 76.8 76.6 76.4 78.3 78.3 US citizen—naturalized       4 64 100 92 109 118 113 128 117 136 142 122 175 141 150 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.0 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.8 3.0 2.6 3.6 2.8 2.9 US citizens 1692 1824 2039 2217 2456 2883 3244 3613 3972 3818 3874 3522 3809 3826 3715 3851 4013 4204 % 80.8 77.4 76.1 76.8 77.9 78.0 79.5 80.2 79.8 78.6 78.9 74.4 78.6 79.7 79.2 80.1 81.1 81.2 Permanent residents 62 81 94 98 133 184 200 249 321 363 366 330 312 249 240 231 208 227 % 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.4 4.2 5.0 4.9 5.5 6.4 7.5 7.5 7.0 6.4 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.2 4.4 Temp visas staying in US 103 104 125 157 174 186 191 178 147 128 137 169 175 160 166 156 147 167 % 4.9 4.4 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.8 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.2 Temp visas leaving US 168 229 280 262 260 301 284 324 336 345 342 367 334 318 327 325 335 345 % 8.0 9.7 10.4 9.1 8.3 8.1 7.0 7.2 6.7 7.1 7.0 7.8 6.9 6.6 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.7 Total temporary residents 325 415 518 525 517 586 589 606 589 574 584 663 628 603 623 602 606 650 % 15.5 17.6 19.3 18.2 16.4 15.9 14.4 13.5 11.8 11.8 11.9 14.0 13.0 12.6 13.3 12.5 12.2 12.5

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-->   1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Non responses 16 36 30 47 45 42 50 35 98 100 88 219 98 122 114 125 121 99 % 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.8 2.0 2.1 1.8 4.6 2.0 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.4 1.9

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-->   1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total PhDs 5288 5362 5263 5414 5428 5360 5399 5807 5908 6211 6508 6682 6924 7182 7312 7696 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 US citizen & perm. residents 4487 4532 4403 4492 4373 4269 4199 4417 4459 4567 4714 4685 4853 5378 5561 5579 % 84.9 84.5 83.7 83.0 80.6 79.6 77.8 76.1 75.5 73.5 72.4 70.1 70.1 74.9 76.1 72.5 US citizens—native born 4142 4188 4076 4128 4034 3894 3790 3953 4042 4087 4133 4113 4202 4247 4266 4285 % 78.3 78.1 77.4 76.2 74.3 72.6 70.2 68.1 68.4 65.8 63.5 61.6 60.7 59.1 58.3 55.7 US citizen—naturalized 140 164 143 174 150 174 169 160 162 194 250 215 236 260 240 286 % 2.6 3.1 2.7 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.7 3.1 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.7 US citizens 4282 4352 4219 4302 4184 4068 3959 4113 4204 4281 4383 4328 4438 4507 4506 4571 % 81.0 81.2 80.2 79.5 77.1 75.9 73.3 70.8 71.2 68.9 67.3 64.8 64.1 62.8 61.6 59.4 Permanent residents 205 180 184 190 189 201 240 304 255 286 331 357 415 871 1055 1008 % 3.9 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.4 5.2 4.3 4.6 5.1 5.3 6.0 12.1 14.4 13.1 Temp visas staying in US 156 176 191 223 263 264 333 413 476 606 928 1132 1165 960 910 1196 % 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.8 4.9 6.2 7.1 8.1 9.8 14.3 16.9 16.8 13.4 12.4 15.5 Temp visas leaving US 358 353 356 344 408 353 352 376 372 571 597 633 658 658 624 650 % 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.4 7.5 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.3 9.2 9.2 9.5 9.5 9.2 8.5 8.4 Total temporary residents 663 674 719 749 865 806 887 1032 1102 1472 1683 1886 1927 1726 1633 1939 % 12.5 12.6 13.7 13.8 15.9 15.0 16.4 17.8 18.7 23.7 25.9 28.2 27.8 24.0 22.3 25.2

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-->   1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Non responses 138 156 141 173 190 285 313 358 347 172 111 111 144 78 118 178 % 2.6 2.9 2.7 3.2 3.5 5.3 5.8 6.2 5.9 2.8 1.7 1.7 2.1 1.1 1.6 2.3

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--> Table E.7 Number of US Life-Science Postdoctoral Fellows by Field and Citizenship, 1972–19951 Year Biological Agricultural Total Citizen Noncitizen 1972 4845 303 5148     1973 5237 242 5479     1974 5231 272 5503     1975 5785 273 6058     1976 6282 349 6631 4831 1800 1977 6588 297 6885 5104 1781 1978 6848 227 7075 5134 1941 1979           1980 7067 258 7325 5134 2191 1981 7668 292 7960 5477 2483 1982 7705 293 7998 5500 2498 1983 8324 308 8632 6000 2632 1984 8677 375 9052 6167 2885 1985 9112 371 9483 6167 3316 1986 9683 412 10095 6332 3763 1987 10358 442 10800 6517 4283 1988 10667 464 11131 6411 4720 1989 11425 517 11942 6648 5294

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--> Table E.8 US Life-Science PhDs Who Took Postdoctoral Training Time Spent in Postdoctoral Positions, as Reported in 1995. Year of PhD >> 1991–92 1989–90 1987–88 1985–86 1983–84 1981–82 1979–80 1977–78 1975–76 1973–74 1971–72 1969–70 Total PhDs who took postdoctoral training 4632 4502 4553 4410 4015 4024 4056 3552 3165 2670 2596 2158 less than 2 years 1332 1096 1291 1252 1010 1057 1132 1275 1235 1022 1059 1076 % less than 2 years 29 24 28 28 25 26 28 36 39 38 41 50 2–4 years 3300 2022 1609 1698 1560 1666 1687 1479 1320 1144 1035 671 % 2–4 years 71 45 35 39 39 41 42 42 42 43 40 31 greater than 4 years NA 1384 1653 1460 1445 1301 1237 798 610 504 502 411 % greater than 4 years NA 31 36 33 36 32 30 22 19 19 19 19 Table E.9 Demographic and Other Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, by 10-Year Cohort   FY 86-96 Doctorate Recipients FY 76-85 Doctorate Recipients FY 66-75 Doctorate Recipients   Total PhDs n Women % Temp Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n Women % Temp Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median time to Degree yrs** All doctorates 70989 36 23 51 7.9 51184 25 13 45 6.8 42647 15 14 34 6.2 Women 25695 100 18 53 7.9 12850 100 9 51 7.0 6579 100 9 41 6.2 Men 45096 0 25 50 7.8 38334 0 15 43 6.8 36068 0 15 33 6.1 Minorities (US cit or perm.) 2781 40 0 47 8.0 1324 35 0 33 7.2 296* 23 0 28 7.2 Whites (US cit or perm.) 43581 39 0 55 7.7 37813 26 0 50 6.6 9818* 20 0 40 6.1 US citizens & perm research 52681 39 0 55 7.8 43051 26 0 49 6.8 35964 16 0 36 6.0 Temporary research 16093 28 0 46 8.0 6754 17 100 28 7.3 5861 10 100 28 6.7 Top 26 institutions 19436 40 16 59 7.7 14187 30 10 54 6.7 11603 20 14 43 6.0 Other institutions 51553 35 25 48 7.9 36997 23 15 42 6.9 31044 14 14 31 6.2 * Total for 1973-1975. Data on race/ethnicity is available only for 1973 to date. Percentage calculated with base years 1973 to 1975. ** Median computed only for period 1970 to 1975. Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates 1920-1996.

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--> Table E.10 Demographic and Other Characteristics of US Life-Science PhDs, by 10-Year Cohort.   FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients   Total Ph.D.s n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total Ph.D.s n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total Ph.D.s n Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs** All doctorates 70989 36 23 51 7.9 51184 25 13 45 6.8 42647 15 14 34 6.2 Women 25695 100 18 53 7.9 12850 100 9 51 7.0 6579 100 9 41 6.2 Men 45096 0 25 50 7.8 38334 0 15 43 6.8 36068 0 15 33 6.1 Minorities (US cit or perm.) 2781 40 0 47 8.0 1324 35 0 33 7.2 296* 23 0 28 7.2 Whites (US cit or perm.) 43581 39 0 55 7.7 37813 26 0 50 6.6 9818* 20 0 40 6.1 US citizens & perm research 52681 39 0 55 7.8 43051 26 0 49 6.8 35964 16 0 36 6.0 Temporary research 16093 28 0 46 8.0 6754 17 100 28 7.3 5861 10 100 28 6.7 Top 26 institutions 19436 40 16 59 7.7 14187 30 10 54 6.7 11603 20 14 43 6.0 Other institutions 51553 35 25 48 7.9 36997 23 15 42 6.9 31044 14 14 31 6.2

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--> Appendix F Data Tables for Chapter 3 Tables 1-7 in this appendix show the fraction (labeled with an ''F") and number (labeled with an "N") of graduates in a particular cohort (for example, 1–2 years after receipt of the PhD) who hold various types of positions. The matrix example on the following page illustrates how these career-progress matrices are to be read. Note that tables include only persons who at the time of doctorate were US citizens or permanent residents. Table F.8 shows number of life-science PhDs by sector. Table F.1 Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.2 Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—Female US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.3 Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—Male US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.4 Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs from 26 High-Quality Institutions—US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.5 Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs from Other Institutions—US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.6 Career Progression of Nonbiomedical Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents. Table F.7 Career Progression of Biomedical Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents Table F.8 Number of Citizen and Permanent Resident Life-Science PhDs by Sector, 1973–1995

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--> Format for Tables F.1–F.7 Career Progression Matrix for Life-Science PhDs (US Citizens and Permanent Residents with PhDs from US Universities)