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--> Table F.1F Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Fraction of 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 Part-time employed 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 Working outside science and engineering 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.25 0.19 0.17 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.09 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.15 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.05 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.21 0.37 0.43 0.42 0.48 0.45 0.53 Other academic position 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.11 Industry 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.08 Federal labs and other government 0.11 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.04 Other jobs including self-employed 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.54 0.59 0.69 0.67 0.76 0.71 0.70 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.52 0.52 0.57 0.45 n/a 0.44 0.49 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.44 0.42 0.48 0.36 n/a 0.39 0.45 Panel B: Fraction of 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 Part-time employed 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.05 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.40 0.31 0.29 0.24 0.21 0.17 0.13 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.15 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.07 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.06 0.11 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.28 0.29 Other academic position 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.13 Industry 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.16 Federal labs and other government 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.07 0.07 Other jobs including self-employed 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.44 0.45 0.64 0.61 0.70 0.68 0.63 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.51 0.46 0.44 0.41 n/a 0.41 0.45

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Fraction of 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 Part-time employed 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.05 Working outside science and engineering 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.42 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.27 0.27 0.22 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.08 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.14 Other academic position 0.03 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.10 0.08 0.12 Industry 0.11 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.22 0.19 Federal labs and other government 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.08 Other jobs including self-employed 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.05 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.45 0.42 0.51 0.54 0.63 0.64 0.65 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.46 0.46 0.43 0.36 n/a 0.37 0.40 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.39 0.37 0.37 0.30 n/a 0.33 0.35 Panel D: Fraction of 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 Part-time employed 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.47 0.44 0.40 0.38 0.32 0.31 0.32 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.07 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.06 0.06 Other academic position 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.10 0.08 Industry 0.11 0.11 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.21 0.22 Federal labs and other government 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.08 0.11 0.10 Other jobs including self-employed 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.42 0.41 0.43 0.51 0.61 0.61 0.61 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.51 0.45 0.39 0.38 n/a 0.39 0.39 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.43 0.37 0.31 0.32 n/a 0.35 0.35

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Fraction of 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 Part-time employed 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.04 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.47 0.42 0.39 0.35 0.36 0.31 0.34 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.06 0.09 0.05 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 Other academic position 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.09 Industry 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.18 0.23 0.22 0.23 Federal labs and other government 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.11 Other jobs including self-employed 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.07 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.41 0.43 0.40 0.44 0.54 0.57 0.58 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.44 0.43 0.36 0.37 n/a 0.37 0.38 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.38 0.34 0.30 0.31 n/a 0.33 0.36

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--> Table F.1N Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Number in 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 144 175 176 220 111 95 211 Part-time employed 195 128 222 236 300 221 202 Working outside science and engineering 136 220 78 262 166 291 319 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1936 1473 1347 956 1002 878 853 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 1158 683 530 510 315 486 469 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 1659 2847 3447 3498 4141 3952 4980 Other academic position 612 322 539 771 574 968 1031 Industry 659 783 906 955 1013 1075 745 Federal labs and other government 864 683 430 484 597 551 359 Other jobs including self-employed 412 321 358 438 381 288 293 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 3963 4214 5197 5132 6093 5799 6131 Supported by federal grants/contracts 3807 3719 4313 3433 n/a 3645 4308 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 3188 3013 3656 2727 n/a 3179 3899 Panel B: Number in 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 70 210 127 132 75 64 173 Part-time employed 152 113 123 205 295 394 288 Working outside science and engineering 179 185 157 94 160 387 458 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 2684 2336 2301 2017 1694 1392 1162 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 1009 983 631 491 247 543 657 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 384 856 1456 1742 1830 2352 2564 Other academic position 379 418 643 773 974 871 1106 Industry 706 1007 1289 1804 1593 1419 1432 Federal labs and other government 758 765 736 654 802 552 656 Other jobs including self-employed 390 605 383 521 487 355 313 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 2776 3124 4758 4861 5319 5059 4995 Supported by federal grants/contracts 3223 3228 3304 3310 n/a 3046 3551 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 2680 2656 2743 2719 n/a 2674 3141

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Number in 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 43 132 152 54 92 105 166 Part-time employed 166 217 149 301 117 308 398 Working outside science and engineering 102 296 172 289 246 341 460 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 2211 3088 2591 2573 2245 2167 1816 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 776 1204 783 605 651 476 637 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 94 383 516 815 839 1001 1171 Other academic position 177 307 538 528 861 621 978 Industry 549 905 1214 1657 1974 1820 1572 Federal labs and other government 805 1065 962 800 734 778 633 Other jobs including self-employed 300 613 579 517 563 505 396 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 2186 3200 3676 4015 4991 4702 4683 Supported by federal grants/contracts 2271 3514 3067 2688 n/a 2736 2850 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 1926 2814 2625 2271 n/a 2454 2512 Panel D: Number in 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 36 95 69 94 32 66 113 Part-time employed 75 119 169 166 300 308 227 Working outside science and engineering 121 199 167 321 429 463 365 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1896 2996 2899 2925 2863 2493 2521 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 581 930 798 631 488 445 568 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 45 191 185 156 437 460 465 Other academic position 77 183 333 491 829 815 594 Industry 451 772 1258 1583 2125 1737 1734 Federal labs and other government 514 870 795 829 730 870 770 Other jobs including self-employed 201 471 649 593 653 504 557 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 1571 2640 2949 3697 4958 4491 4401 Supported by federal grants/contracts 1916 2908 2670 2716 n/a 2862 2826 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 1615 2401 2145 2338 n/a 2571 2557

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Number in 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 30 77 128 81 41 111 44 Part-time employed 72 129 180 232 277 184 242 Working outside science and engineering 115 224 286 297 296 559 340 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1672 2267 3056 2565 3005 2588 2725 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 501 791 1156 743 508 729 422 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 7 64 59 132 171 264 228 Other academic position 47 63 397 425 491 574 745 Industry 430 617 847 1321 1884 1861 1882 Federal labs and other government 485 877 1260 939 895 964 882 Other jobs including self-employed 162 277 472 676 691 564 588 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 1357 2144 2903 3004 4092 4334 4345 Supported by federal grants/contracts 1446 2142 2601 2484 n/a 2812 2868 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 1266 1699 2207 2082 n/a 2496 2664

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--> Table F.2F Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—Female US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Fraction of 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.03 Part-time employed 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.04 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.15 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.07 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.12 0.13 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.30 0.45 0.55 0.47 0.48 0.47 0.55 Other academic position 0.12 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.10 Industry 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.10 0.08 Federal labs and other government 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.03 Other jobs including self-employed 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position 11 Engaged primarily in research 0.68 0.63 0.78 0.68 0.76 0.72 0.72 12 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.62 0.59 0.60 0.50 n/a 0.46 0.55 13 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.53 0.52 0.56 0.43 n/a 0.40 0.50 Panel B: Fraction of 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 Part-time employed 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.07 Working outside science and engineering 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.27 0.28 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.16 0.10 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.17 0.16 0.09 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.09 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.10 0.19 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.28 0.32 Other academic position 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.15 0.10 0.11 Industry 0.03 0.04 0.09 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.12 Federal labs and other government 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.07 Other jobs including self-employed 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.05 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.49 0.52 0.59 0.60 0.72 0.64 0.61 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.58 0.55 0.49 0.45 n/a 0.42 0.46 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.46 0.47 0.41 0.40 n/a 0.38 0.42

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Fraction of 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 Part-time employed 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.08 0.04 0.09 0.09 Working outside science and engineering 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.07 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.33 0.31 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.23 0.19 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.10 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.11 Other academic position 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.14 0.10 0.09 0.18 Industry 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.15 0.20 0.18 0.17 Federal labs and other government 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.06 Other jobs including self-employed 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.03 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.53 0.49 0.54 0.62 0.60 0.65 0.61 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.58 0.48 0.48 0.39 n/a 0.40 0.44 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.51 0.36 0.42 0.36 n/a 0.38 0.38 Panel D: Fraction of 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.03 Part-time employed 0.15 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.07 Working outside science and engineering 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.03 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.29 0.38 0.39 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.29 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.18 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.09 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.06 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 Other academic position 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.08 Industry 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.13 0.19 0.15 0.19 Federal labs and other government 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.10 0.08 Other jobs including self-employed 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.47 0.43 0.51 0.52 0.63 0.6 0.58 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.50 0.54 0.45 0.46 n/a 0.45 0.39 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.40 0.45 0.39 0.37 n/a 0.41 0.36

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Fraction of 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 Part-time employed 0.11 0.15 0.07 0.10 0.12 0.06 0.08 Working outside science and engineering 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.09 0.05 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.32 0.39 0.35 0.32 0.34 0.29 0.36 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.22 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.06 0.09 0.06 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.01 Other academic position 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.11 Industry 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.09 0.20 0.18 0.15 Federal labs and other government 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.10 Other jobs including self-employed 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.07 0.04 0.07 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.52 0.60 0.57 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.50 0.50 0.43 0.41 n/a 0.39 0.45 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.43 0.43 0.39 0.38 n/a 0.35 0.44

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--> Table F.2N Career Progression of Life-Science PhDs—Female US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Number in 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 59 72 59 75 54 39 122 Part-time employed 105 72 122 132 197 153 102 Working outside science and engineering 29 57 19 115 62 155 141 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 172 173 194 233 370 314 288 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 130 214 95 139 94 186 172 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 338 725 1103 1199 1437 1620 2171 Other academic position 133 71 138 164 260 379 389 Industry 43 69 166 229 218 340 295 Federal labs and other government 45 68 61 131 183 174 126 Other jobs including self-employed 71 74 54 128 92 113 109 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 638 879 1409 1521 2008 2245 2571 Supported by federal grants/contracts 580 818 1092 1110 n/a 1437 1944 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 492 720 1006 966 n/a 1239 1768 Panel B: Number in 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 34 43 63 72 71 54 59 Part-time employed 95 77 116 125 110 264 233 Working outside science and engineering 31 31 48 57 105 165 174 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 224 356 336 423 451 487 346 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 139 205 144 204 84 253 295 Postdoc total appointments in any sector 80 241 394 536 571 876 1116 Other academic position 100 82 96 281 372 311 374 Industry 21 50 136 301 350 394 406 Federal labs and other government 42 82 145 154 167 164 248 Other jobs including self-employed 66 122 113 106 188 129 183 Research Involvement in full-time S&E position Engaged primarily in research 327 589 803 1193 1569 1668 1808 Supported by federal grants/contracts 387 626 671 905 n/a 1106 1370 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 309 531 560 793 n/a 988 1251

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Number in 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 12 21 35 0 25 18 95 Part-time employed 45 36 25 34 23 124 124 Working outside science and engineering 30 94 13 105 26 117 70 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 519 688 527 620 763 568 447 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 312 487 268 267 180 142 48 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 16 59 2 102 57 108 213 Other academic position 14 26 131 70 141 94 179 Industry 154 274 341 339 436 468 348 Federal labs and other government 416 514 493 283 337 216 279 Other jobs (including self-employed) 28 81 86 86 93 110 38 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 663 662 834 758 1256 883 1064 Supported by federal grants/contracts 539 882 517 580 n/a 570 493 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 458 650 399 409 n/a 429 354 Panel D: Number in 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0 24 18 31 4 30 25 Part-time employed 5 24 5 23 124 51 35 Working outside science and engineering 55 37 33 77 121 178 161 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 629 922 617 636 782 549 489 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 190 264 268 217 117 168 206 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 5 29 2 37 44 54 58 Other academic position 8 47 55 66 203 169 96 Industry 138 265 429 507 595 369 387 Federal labs and other government 233 369 330 356 295 421 219 Other jobs (including self-employed) 32 60 70 116 59 99 116 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) 2088   Engaged primarily in research 545 746 557 874 1120 1092 823 Supported by federal grants/contracts 637 820 524 563 n/a 525 577 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 528 656 405 374 n/a 380 510

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Number in 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 13 21 24 12 0 43 0 Part-time employed 11 12 31 64 46 37 41 Working outside science and engineering 43 56 124 91 58 159 99 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 587 456 674 483 733 671 547 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 205 280 658 240 197 276 117 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 3 5 6 10 74 34 53 Other academic position 18 23 101 86 90 113 198 Industry 128 137 216 340 274 428 349 Federal labs and other government 236 434 650 458 330 397 393 Other jobs (including self-employed) 18 34 75 74 164 83 138 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 533 589 751 693 865 1013 1024 Supported by federal grants/contracts 465 498 645 472 n/a 575 571 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 393 330 473 394 n/a 430 507

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--> Table F.7F Career Progression of Biomedical Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Fraction of 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 Part-time employed 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 Working outside science and engineering 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.24 0.17 0.13 0.07 0.09 0.09 0.07 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.11 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.04 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 0.28 0.46 0.52 0.51 0.57 0.49 0.58 Other academic position 0.09 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.11 0.12 Industry 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.12 0.07 Federal labs and other government 0.08 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 Other jobs (including self-employed) 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 0.60 0.65 0.74 0.70 0.78 0.74 0.72 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.58 0.58 0.59 0.48 n/a 0.47 0.51 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.50 0.49 0.54 0.40 n/a 0.42 0.48 Panel B: Fraction of 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 Part-time employed 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.05 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.39 0.32 0.31 0.19 0.18 0.15 0.13 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.14 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.06 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 0.07 0.15 0.24 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.31 Other academic position 0.07 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.13 0.11 0.12 Industry 0.09 0.10 0.13 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.17 Federal labs and other government 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 Other jobs (including self-employed) 0.08 0.11 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.03 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 0.47 0.49 0.68 0.62 0.74 0.70 0.67 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.55 0.50 0.48 0.40 n/a 0.46 0.45 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.46 0.41 0.43 0.34 n/a 0.42 0.42

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Fraction of 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Part-time employed 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.04 Working outside science and engineering 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.06 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.46 0.40 0.36 0.31 0.24 0.26 0.21 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.13 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.09 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 0.02 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.15 Other academic position 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.09 0.13 Industry 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.21 0.25 0.22 0.19 Federal labs and other government 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.06 Other jobs (including self-employed) 0.07 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.06 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 0.44 0.47 0.54 0.57 0.64 0.67 0.64 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.50 0.48 0.48 0.37 n/a 0.38 0.42 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.43 0.40 0.42 0.33 n/a 0.36 0.38 Panel D: Fraction of 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.1 Part-time employed 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.03 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.47 0.43 0.42 0.40 0.32 0.32 0.33 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.14 0.14 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.07 Other academic position 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.11 0.08 Industry 0.12 0.11 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.23 0.22 Federal labs and other government 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.09 Other jobs (including self-employed) 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.07 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 0.41 0.42 0.46 0.54 0.64 0.62 0.63 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.51 0.47 0.42 0.41 n/a 0.43 0.40 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.43 0.39 0.34 0.37 n/a 0.40 0.36

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Fraction of 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Part-time employed 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.03 Working outside science and engineering 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.04 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.37 0.36 0.31 0.35 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 0.13 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.05 0.07 0.05 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 Other academic position 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.09 Industry 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.18 0.26 0.23 0.25 Federal labs and other government 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 Other jobs (including self-employed) 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.07 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 0.39 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.56 0.60 0.58 Supported by federal grants/contracts 0.47 0.46 0.40 0.39 n/a 0.40 0.40 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 0.41 0.38 0.36 0.33 n/a 0.37 0.38

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--> Table F.7N Career Progression of Biomedical Life-Science PhDs—US Citizens and Permanent Residents   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel A: Number in 1–2 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 121 144 110 115 80 52 199 Part-time employed 157 117 174 131 154 182 124 Working outside science and engineering 91 164 52 183 129 215 168 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1321 926 774 394 576 619 546 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 616 465 287 347 180 249 291 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 1521 2557 3167 3060 3681 3309 4348 Other academic position 487 215 461 501 517 740 900 Industry 401 419 562 642 521 797 524 Federal labs and other government 441 309 208 257 334 295 256 Other jobs (including self-employed) 363 264 303 389 292 228 182 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 3073 3335 4283 3894 4769 4588 5084 Supported by federal grants/contracts 2974 2968 3405 2675 n/a 2902 3620 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 2573 2501 3095 2218 n/a 2637 3379 Panel B: Number in 3–4 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 66 136 102 98 62 47 141 Part-time employed 135 90 102 103 211 265 229 Working outside science and engineering 157 144 82 61 118 318 370 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1835 1727 1793 1199 1059 966 892 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 671 655 367 420 155 434 427 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 349 815 1370 1538 1671 2061 2102 Other academic position 320 310 463 568 803 686 839 Industry 408 565 756 1311 1159 1064 1127 Federal labs and other government 421 399 395 425 383 298 385 Other jobs (including self-employed) 373 570 327 483 375 274 216 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 2039 2486 3707 3694 4156 4052 3998 Supported by federal grants/contracts 2400 2524 2647 2392 n/a 2664 2708 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 2009 2055 2356 1999 n/a 2420 2502

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel C: Number in 5–6 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 31 111 117 54 67 87 71 Part-time employed 121 181 124 267 94 184 274 Working outside science and engineering 72 202 159 184 220 224 390 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1692 2400 2064 1953 1482 1599 1369 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 464 717 515 338 471 334 589 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 78 324 514 713 782 893 958 Other academic position 163 281 407 458 720 527 799 Industry 395 631 873 1318 1538 1352 1224 Federal labs and other government 389 551 469 517 397 562 354 Other jobs (including self-employed) 272 532 493 431 470 395 358 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 1523 2538 2842 3257 3735 3819 3619 Supported by federal grants/contracts 1732 2632 2550 2108 n/a 2166 2357 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 1468 2164 2226 1862 n/a 2025 2158 Panel D: Number in 7–8 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 36 71 51 63 28 36 88 Part-time employed 70 95 164 133 176 257 192 Working outside science and engineering 66 162 134 244 308 285 204 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1267 2074 2282 2289 2081 1944 2032 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 391 666 530 414 371 277 362 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 40 162 183 119 393 406 407 Other academic position 69 136 278 425 626 646 498 Industry 313 507 829 1076 1530 1368 1347 Federal labs and other government 281 501 465 473 435 449 551 Other jobs (including self-employed) 169 411 579 477 594 405 441 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) 6073   Engaged primarily in research 1026 1894 2392 2823 3838 3399 3578 Supported by federal grants/contracts 1279 2088 2146 2153 n/a 2337 2249 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 1087 1745 1740 1964 n/a 2191 2047

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-->   Survey Year   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Panel E: Number in 9–10 Year Cohort Not in Full-time S&E Work Force Unemployed and seeking position 17 56 104 69 41 68 44 Part-time employed 61 117 149 168 231 147 201 Working outside science and engineering 72 168 162 206 238 400 241 Full-time employed in S&E field Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions 1085 1811 2382 2082 2272 1917 2178 Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst 296 511 498 503 311 453 305 Postdoc total appointments (in any sector) 4 59 53 122 97 230 175 Other academic position 29 40 296 339 401 461 547 Industry 302 480 631 981 1610 1433 1533 Federal labs and other government 249 443 610 481 565 567 489 Other jobs (including self-employed) 144 243 397 602 527 481 450 Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position) Engaged primarily in research 824 1555 2152 2311 3227 3321 3321 Supported by federal grants/contracts 981 1644 1956 2012 n/a 2237 2297 Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA 873 1369 1734 1688 n/a 2066 2157

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--> Table F.8 Number of Citizen and Permanent Resident Life-Science PhDs by sector, 1973–1995   1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995 Unemployed and seeking 343 869 879 1063 852 1414 1682 Part-time employment 809 940 1463 2164 3016 4581 4447 Working outside S&E 951 1775 1606 3392 4355 6378 6457 Tenure-track faculty: PhD-granting inst. 13685 18957 23923 27838 31857 32908 34257 Tenure-track faculty: other inst. 4817 6316 7469 8048 8191 9272 10014 Postdoctoral appointments 2202 4402 5772 6461 7567 8316 9851 Other academic appointments 1401 1438 3062 4251 5734 6532 7828 Industry 3547 5938 8845 13308 17724 20517 21185 Federal labs & other gov't 4406 6174 7503 8474 10160 10675 11143 Self-employed & others 1835 3117 4550 6035 7196 7733 8120 Total PhDs in workforce 33996 49926 65072 81034 96652 103920 114984

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--> Appendix G Getting Started on the World Wide Web: Web Sites of Interest to Young Scientists This list is a starting point for readers who wish to search the Internet for information relevant to this report. It is neither complete nor fully representative. New sites open daily, and sites are discontinued without notice. Inclusion in the following list does not necessarily imply endorsement by the committee of the information found at the site. Sites with a Focus on Young Scientists National Academy of Sciences Career Planning Center: http://www.nas.edu/cpc/index.html Science's Next Wave: http://nextwave.org Young Scientists' Network: http://www.edoc.com/jrl-bin/wilma/ema.800726377.htm [electronic newsletter] http://www.physics.uiuc.edu/ysn/ [archives and other information] Network of Emerging Scientists: http://pegasus.uthct.edu/nes/nes.html Pandora Science Policy Site: http://www.mit.edu:8001/afs/athena.mit.edu/user/e/r/erw/public/pandoralid.html Networking and Education Sites Networking on the Network: http://weber.ucsd.edu/˜pagre/network.html Principles of Protein Structure: http://www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/pps/index.html http://pdb.pdb.bnl.gov/pps/index.html (us mirror site) Globewide Network Academy: http://www.gnacademy.org The Glycoprotein Network and electronic conferencing: http://bellatrix.pcl.ox.ac.uk/tgn/Welcome.html

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--> BioMOO: http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/biomoo Scientific Societies National Academy of Sciences (NAS): http://www.nas.edu Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB): http://www.faseb.org American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): http://www.aaas.org Association for Women in Science (AWIS): http://www.awis.org American Psychological Association (APA): http://www.apa.org American Society for Microbiology (ASM): http://www.asmusa.org Society for Neuroscience (SN): http://www.sfn.org American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB): http://www.ascb.org Links: The World of Science (hot links to American Chemical Society, and so on) http://www.annurev.org/general/univrsty.htm The World Wide Web Virtual Library of Biology Societies and Organizations: http://golgi.harvard.edu/afagen/depts/orgs.html American Society of Plant Physiologists http://aspp.org