structure has been one of the great strengths of life-science research in the United States. Research groups can vary widely from the model described above, depending on the discipline, the size of the group, the personality of the individuals involved, and the institution; but even this variation is probably constructives: it allows the country's research enterprise to encompass many approaches within the framework of research that is supported by grants to individual life-science investigators. The resulting pluralism has contributed to the ability of American life-sciences to explore the biologic landscape fast and economically. Even the research structures found in many companies can be described by this model, although they include a different range of constraints, depending on the scientific and economic goals of the companies.

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