Those several changes have had a serious effect on the labor market for life scientists. Throughout the roughly 30-year period being considered in this report, the cohort of young scientists entering the workforce has been much larger than the cohort that they replace (those who had completed their training 30 or so years earlier). Although the number of life scientists reaching retirement age has been steadily increasing, so has the number entering the workforce. For example, some 2,700 doctorates were awarded in 1965, compared with 7,696 in 1996. The impact of these trends on career opportunities for young PhDs is examined in detail in the chapter 3.
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NRC (National Research Council). 1978. A century of doctorates: data analysis of growth and change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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NSF (National Science Foundation). 1995. Survey of graduate students and postdoctorates in science and engineering. Washington, DC: NSF.
Van Ryzin G, Dietz S, Weiner J, Wright D. 1995. The employment outlook in the microbiological sciences, 1995. http://www.asmusa.org/pasrc/empoutlk.pdf.